Thomas Quellinus (March 1661 – September 1709), also known, especially in Denmark, as Thomas Qvellinus, was a Flemish baroque sculptor. He was born in Antwerp but worked mainly in Copenhagen, Denmark. He is especially known for the production of grandiose and sumptuous memorial chapels, sepulchral monuments and epitaphs, which can be found in churches throughout Denmark and northern Germany’s Schleswig-Holstein area. His chapels and monuments are dramatically composed, executed in rare, differently coloured types of marble and framed by monumental architectural components.
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, and the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as (Flemish) culture and education.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep colour, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century.
He was a member of the well-known Quellinus family of artists from 17th century Antwerp, major center of artistic life then known as "the Florence of the North".
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, and with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels.
Thomas Quellinus was born in Antwerp to the leading Baroque sculptor Artus Quellinus II and Anna Maria Gabron, and was baptised on 17 March 1661. He trained in his father’s workshop in the art of sculpture. After completing his apprenticeship with his father, he went to London, England, where he worked with his brother Artus Quellinus III. While in England he married Anna Maria Cocques (Cooques). He remained there until at least January 1688.
Artus Quellinus II or Artus Quellinus the Younger was a Flemish sculptor who played an important role in the evolution of Northern-European sculpture from High Baroque to Late Baroque.
London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
He was already a respected artist when he came to Denmark at the end of the 1680s to oversee the numerous Scandinavian commissions of his father’s workshop. He arrived in 1689 and supervised the work on the tomb designed by his father for Field Marshal Hans Schack (1609–76) in Trinity Church (Trinitatiskirke), Copenhagen.
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes.
Hans Schack,, was a member of the north German noble family Schack, who after many years in French service, entered the Danish service, made major contributions during the war with Sweden, and loyally supported Frederick III when he overthrew the Danish constitution. He became a Danish field-marshal, commander-in-chief of the Danish army, member of the Board of State, and of the Danish Privy Council, and made a Danish count.
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218. It forms the core of the wider urban area of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.
In a short time he gained a considerable independent reputation as a sculptor in Northern Europe. The commission to create the Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve monument in Our Lady Church ( Vor Frue Kirke ), Copenhagen in August 1689 was the catalyst for his extended stay and successful career in Denmark.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden, and less often the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads public square in central Copenhagen, next to the main building of the University of Copenhagen.
Due to the volume and scope of work he produced, he opened in 1689 a workshop in Lübeck, which specialized in funerary monuments for Danish and north German patrons. In his workshop he had many students, apprentices and helpers, mainly sculptors from Flanders; among them Just Wiedewelt (father of sculptor Johannes Wiedewelt, Abraham Breusegem Emanuel Cuekelaere, and probably Andreas Gercken. In order to simplify production he was known to have imported some partially carved pieces, especially architectural pieces, from the Southern Netherlands.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, and because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture, it is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523.
Johannes Wiedewelt, Danish neoclassical sculptor, was born in Copenhagen to royal sculptor to the Danish Court, Just Wiedewelt, and his wife Birgitte Lauridsdatter. Following in his father's footsteps, he too became a royal sculptor introducing neoclassical ideals to Denmark in the form of palace decorations, garden sculptures and artifacts and, especially, memorial monuments. He was undoubtedly the best known Danish sculptor before Bertel Thorvaldsen.
Although he was very successful with private commissions, not much of his work came from the royal court. And although he was arguably the country’s leading sculptor, he was never named sculptor to the royal court. Up until 1697 he lived in Aabenraa, and then he acquired residential property on Norgesgade, now known as Bredgade, in Copenhagen.
His assistants Breusegem and Cuekelaere executed the sculptures for the altar at Our Saviour’s Church (Vor Frelsers Kirke), Copenhagen according to Quellinus’s sketch in 1697.
On 6 October 1701 Quellinus was one of a group of respected artists to send a petition to King Frederick IV requesting approval for the formation of an artist society and teaching academy. The others were Hendrick Krock, Wilchen Riboldt, Jacob Coning, Otto de Willarts, and Georg Saleman — all artists in the service of the court. This was the humble beginning to the formation of the Royal Danish Academy of Art (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) many years later.
After 1701 he regularly visited Antwerp, and was in the Southern Netherlands in 1704. He received citizenship in Copenhagen as a sculptor on 12 December 1703, along with royal permission to run a commercial enterprise selling lace from Brabant.
He returned permanently to Antwerp in 1707, and became a master in the city’s Guild of St Luke.
He died in Antwerp and was buried on 7 September 1709. His widow, Anna Marie, survived him, and it is believed that she continued his workshop’s production for some years with a couple of assistants. She also continued until 1711 the commercial enterprise selling lace.
Much of his work has not survived or has been partially destroyed by either fire, war or the general ravages of time. This includes the Schack tomb at Trinity Church, which originally brought Quellinus to Denmark, which was already partially destroyed in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728.
His almost seventeen years in Denmark had a significant impact on the development of Danish sculpture, and especially memorial sculpture. Many of the next generation’s best sculptors were his students.
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish sculptor of international fame and medallist, who spent most of his life (1797–1838) in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old. Working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education.
Herman Wilhelm Bissen was a Danish sculptor.
Christian Frederik Hansen, known as C. F. Hansen, was the leading Danish architect between the late 18th century and the mid 19th century, and on account of his position at the Royal Danish Academy of Art the most powerful person in artistic circles for many years. He was known as "Denmark’s Palladio" on account of the architectural style he promoted. His buildings are known for their simplicity, strength and scale.
St. Anne's Museum Quarter was previously an Augustinian nunnery, St. Anne's Priory. Since 1915 it has housed St. Anne's Museum, one of Lübeck's museums of art and cultural history containing Germany's largest collection of medieval sculpture and altar-pieces, including the famous altars by Hans Memling, Bernt Notke, Hermen Rode, Jacob van Utrecht and Benedikt Dreyer.
Caspar Frederik (Friedrich) Harsdorff, also known as C.F. Harsdorff,, Danish neoclassical architect is considered to be Denmark’s leading architect in the late 18th century, and is referred to as “The Father of Danish Classicism”.
St. Peter's Church is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the city's Latin Quarter. Built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is also notable for its extensive complex of sepulchral chapels.
Artus Quellinus also known as Artus (Arnoldus) Quellijn, Artus Quellinus I or Artus Quellinus the Elder was a Flemish sculptor. He is regarded as the most important representative of the Baroque in sculpture in the Southern Netherlands. His work had a major influence on the development of sculpture in Northern Europe.
Lucas Faydherbe was a Flemish sculptor and architect who played a major role in the development of the High Baroque in the Southern Netherlands.
Rombout Verhulst was a Flemish sculptor and draughtsman who spent most of his career in the Dutch Republic. There he helped introduce the Baroque style in sculpture while becoming the leading sculptor of marble monuments, including funerary monuments, garden figures and portraits.
Danish sculpture as a nationally recognized art form can be traced back to 1752 when Jacques Saly was commissioned to execute a statue of King Frederick V of Denmark on horseback. While Bertel Thorvaldsen was undoubtedly the country's most prominent contributor, many other players have produced fine work, especially in the areas of Neoclassicism, Realism, and in Historicism, the latter resulting from growing consciousness of a national identity. More recently, Danish sculpture has been inspired by European trends, especially those from Paris, including Surrealism and Modernism.
Hendrik Frans Verbrugghen or Hendrik Frans Verbruggen was a Flemish sculptor and draftsman, who is best known for his Baroque church furniture in various Belgian churches.
Rombaut Pauwels or Rombout Pauwels was a Flemish architect and sculptor who worked in a moderate Baroque style.
Mattheus van Beveren was a Flemish sculptor and medalist who is mainly known for his monumental Baroque church sculptures and small wood and ivory sculptures.
The St. Paul's Church or Sint-Pauluskerk is a Roman Catholic church located at the Veemarkt in Antwerp. Its exterior is mainly Gothic with a Baroque tower while the interior is characterised by its rich Baroque decoration.
Pieter Scheemaeckers, Pieter Scheemackers, Pieter Scheemaeckers I or Pieter Scheemaeckers the Elder was a Flemish sculptor who played an important role in the development of Baroque church sculpture in the Southern Netherlands.
Otto Frederik Theobald Evens was a Danish sculptor.
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