Thomas Richardson Colledge (11 June 1797 – 28 October 1879) was an English surgeon with the East India Company at Guangzhou (Canton) who served part-time as the first medical missionary in China, and played a role in establishing the Canton Hospital. In 1837 he founded and served as the first president of the Medical Missionary Society of China.
In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry maxillofacial surgeon and the veterinary fields.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.
The Canton Hospital (廣州博濟醫院) or Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton, also known as the Canton Pok Tsai Hospital, was founded by Protestant medical missionary Peter Parker (1804-1888) in Canton, China on November 4, 1835. The hospital treated thousands of patients in need, became the center for the Medical Missionary Society in China, and still exists today as one of the most prestigious ophthalmic institutes in the world.
Colledge was born in Kilsby Northamptonshire on 11 June 1797, and received his early medical education under Sir Astley Cooper, before formal training (late in life) at Aberdeen University graduating MD in 1839, aged 43.
Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet was an English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.
He earlier had found a position with the Honourable East India Company and through them practised in Canton and Macau and some other Chinese ports, first under the Hon. East India Company, and then under the crown, and was superintending surgeon of the Hospitals for British Seamen.
Macau or Macao, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With a population of 653,100 in an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.
During his residence in Canton and Macau he originated the first infirmary for the indigent Chinese, which was called after him, Colledge's Ophthalmic Hospital. He was also the founder, in 1837, of the Medical Missionary Society in China, and continued to be president of that society to the time of his death. On the abolition of the office of surgeon to the consulate at Canton in May 1841, and his consequent return to England, deep regret was expressed by the whole community, European and native, and a memorial of his services was addressed to her majesty by the Portuguese of the settlement of Macau, which caused Lord Palmerston to settle on him an annuity from the civil list. Before he left Asia, Colledge mentored an American surgeon, Peter Parker, who became the first full-time medical missionary to the Chinese.
Peter Parker was an American physician and a missionary who introduced Western medical techniques into Qing Dynasty China. It was said that Parker "opened China to the gospel at the point of a lancet."
Colledge took the degree of M.D. at King's College, Aberdeen, in 1839, became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 1840, a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1844, and a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, 1853.
King's College in Old Aberdeen, Scotland, the full title of which is The University and King's College of Aberdeen, is a formerly independent university founded in 1495 and now an integral part of the University of Aberdeen. Its historic buildings are the centrepiece of the University of Aberdeen's Old Aberdeen campus, often known as the King's or King's College campus.
The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) is a Medical Royal College in Scotland. It is one of three organisations that sets the specialty training standards for physicians in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter in 1681. The college claims to have 12,000 fellows and members worldwide.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland. It was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows.
The last thirty-eight years of his life were spent in Cheltenham, where he won universal esteem by his courtesy and skill. He died at Lauriston House, Cheltenham, 28 Oct. 1879, aged 83. His widow, Caroline Matilda, died 6 Jan. 1880.
Cheltenham is a regency spa town and borough on the edge of the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, England. Cheltenham has been a health and holiday spa town resort since the discovery of mineral springs in 1716 and has a number of internationally renowned and historic schools.
The Dean Cemetery is a historically important Victorian cemetery north of the Dean Village, west of Edinburgh city centre, in Scotland. It lies between Queensferry Road and the Water of Leith, bounded on its east side by Dean Path and on its west by the Dean Gallery. A 20th-century extension lies detached from the main cemetery to the north of Ravelston Terrace. The main cemetery is accessible through the main gate on its east side, through a "grace and favour" access door from the grounds of Dean Gallery and from Ravelston Terrace. The modern extension is only accessible at the junction of Dean Path and Queensferry Road.
Nathaniel Wolff Wallich FRS FRSE was a surgeon and botanist of Danish origin who worked in India, initially in the Danish settlement near Calcutta and later for the Danish East India Company and the British East India Company. He was involved in the early development of the Calcutta Botanical Garden, describing many new plant species and developing a large herbarium collection which was distributed to collections in Europe. Several of the plants that he collected were named after him.
John Hutton Balfour was a Scottish botanist. Balfour became a Professor of Botany, first at the University of Glasgow in 1841, moving to the University of Edinburgh and also becoming the 7th Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Her Majesty's Botanist in 1845. He held these posts until his retirement in 1879. He was nicknamed Woody Fibre.
John Robert Morrison was a British interpreter and colonial official in China. Born in Macau, his father was Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary in China. After his father's death in 1834, Morrison replaced him as Chinese Secretary and Interpreter to the Superintendents of British Trade in China. In 1843, he was appointed as Acting Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong and a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils, but died eight days later in Macau from fever.
Sir William Knighton, 1st Baronet GCH was Private Secretary to the Sovereign, George IV 1822–1830.
William Lockhart was a Protestant Christian missionary who served with the London Missionary Society during the late Qing Dynasty in China. In 1844, he founded the first western hospital in Shanghai, which was known as the Chinese Hospital. The hospital is named of Renji Hospital now, which is one of the most famous hospitals in China.
The Medical Missionary Society in China was a Protestant medical missionary society established in Canton, China, in 1838.
Medical missions in China by Protestant Christian physicians and surgeons of the 19th and early 20th centuries laid many foundations for modern medicine in China. Western medical missionaries established the first modern clinics and hospitals, provided the first training for nurses, and opened the first medical schools in China. Work was also done in opposition to the abuse of opium. Medical treatment and care came to many Chinese who were addicted, and eventually public and official opinion was influenced in favor of bringing an end to the destructive trade.
Dr Angus Macdonald FRSE FRCPE, was a Scottish physician, obstetrician and lecturer at the University of Edinburgh. He served as President of the Edinburgh Obstetrical Society from 1879 to 1881.
Peter Shepherd was a British Army doctor.
John Ivor Murray FRSE FRCSE, known as Ivor, was a Scottish surgeon who practised in China, Hong Kong and then in Sebastopol in the Crimean War. He was notably adventurous, travelling through Borneo, collecting for the Industrial Museum of Scotland, in Edinburgh, and serving on scientific expeditions to China. He was president of the British Balneological and Climatological Society in 1900.
John Davidson (1797–1836) was an English traveller in Africa.
Dr Robert Daun FRSE FRCS was a prominent figure in 19th century Scotland with a colourful life, ranging from being with the Scots Greys at the Battle of Waterloo to being elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Prof Robert Dyce FRSE (1798–1869) was a Scottish surgeon and Professor of Midwifery at Aberdeen University.
Dr John Gibson Fleming FRSE PFPSG (1809-1879) was a Scottish surgeon, medical administrator and President of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow 1865 to 1868, and 1870 to 1872.
Dr Peter David Handyside FRSE FRCSE (1808–1881) was a Scottish surgeon and anatomist. He served as President of the Royal Medical Society in 1828. He won the Harveian Society Medal in 1827 and served as their Secretary in 1837. He was also President of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh in 1871.
John Scott FRSE FRCPE FRCP (1797–1859) was a 19th century Scottish naval surgeon and physician to Queen Victoria in Scotland.
Dr George Smyttan FRSE (1789–1863) was a 19th century Scottish physician who helped to run the Medical Missionary Society in India.