Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton
|Born||February 17, 1900|
Corbetton, Ontario, Canada
|Died||September 17, 1993 93) (aged|
|Alma mater|| University of Toronto (B.A., 1921)|
Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D., 1928)
|Occupation||professor, classical scholar, Roman historian, author|
|Known for||Latin prosopography; Magistrates of the Roman Republic|
Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, FBA ( // ; 17 February 1900 – 17 September 1993) was a Canadian classical scholar and leading Latin prosopographer of the twentieth century. He is especially noted for his definitive three-volume work, Magistrates of the Roman Republic (1951-1986).
Fellowship of the British Academy (FBA) is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences. There are three kinds of fellowship:
Classical antiquity is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.
Broughton was born in 1900 in Corbetton, Ontario. He attended Victoria College at the University of Toronto. There he received a B.A. in 1921 with honors in classics. He earned his M.A. in 1922. After studying at the University of Chicago, he was made a Rogers Fellow at Johns Hopkins University, where he received a Ph.D. in Latin in 1928, having studied under the famed ancient historian Tenney Frank (1876-1939).
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga.
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan. The University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research.
He began his teaching career at Victoria College, Toronto. Broughton would go on to teach at Amherst College, Bryn Mawr College (1928-1965) and, later, serve as George L. Paddison Professor of Latin at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1965-1971), where the Library Epigraphy Room, created at his behest, remains a seminal resource. Although he retired from UNC in 1971 (then aged 71), he would continue to work and advise students until his death in 1993.
Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. Founded in 1821 as an attempt to relocate Williams College by its then-president Zephaniah Swift Moore, Amherst is the third oldest institution of higher education in Massachusetts. The institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Jeffery, Lord Amherst. Originally established as a men's college, Amherst became coeducational in 1975.
Bryn Mawr College is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Founded as a Quaker institution in 1885, Bryn Mawr is one of the Seven Sister colleges and the Tri-College Consortium. The college has an enrollment of about 1,350 undergraduate students and 450 graduate students.
George Lucas Paddison was an American assistant professor, lawyer, and sales supervisor.
In 1931, he married Annie Leigh Hobson Broughton of Norfolk, Virginia. They had two children, Margaret Broughton Tenney and T. Alan Broughton (b. 1936), a poet and pianist and professor emeritus of the University of Vermont. Mrs. Broughton died on September 19, 2005, in Charleston, South Carolina.
Annie Leigh Hobson Broughton was an academic administrator and advocate for women's opportunities in higher education.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803; in 2017, the population was estimated to be 244,703 making it the second-most populous city in Virginia after neighboring Virginia Beach and the 91st largest city in the nation.
Thomas Alan Broughton was an American poet and amateur pianist.
Broughton's main scholarly work was his massive, three-volume Magistrates of the Roman Republic (commonly abbreviated MRR), published 1951 to 1986 and requiring more than 30 years to complete. The project provides an unparalleled accounting of the names of men elected to office during the Roman Republic and has become a standard reference work. It provides a year-by-year list of all known office-holders, including not only the magistracies of the cursus honorum from consul to quaestor, but also promagistracies and military commands in the provinces, legates (both official and ad hoc), military prefects, priesthoods, and special commissions. Each entry is documented with ancient sources and selected works of modern scholarship. An index by name, listing each man's known offices, appears in volume 2.
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
The cursus honorum was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum.
In 1953 the Magistrates of the Roman Republic was recognized with the Goodwin Award of Merit from the American Philological Association.
Broughton's career included a variety of academic appointments and awards: visiting professor at Johns Hopkins University, Simon F. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow, holder of a Fulbright research grant to Italy and professor in charge of the School of Classical Studies of the American Academy in Rome.
Broughton served as president of the American Philological Association and as vice president of the International Federation of Societies of Classical Studies for 10 years. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an honorary member of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, a corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute and a corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Three universities awarded him honorary LL.D. degrees: Johns Hopkins University in 1969, the University of Toronto in 1971 and UNC in 1974.
After Broughton's death in September 1993, a Colloquium was organised for November 1994 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in honour of his memory. The papers delivered on this occasion, including those by eminent scholars such as T.P. Wiseman, Erich S. Gruen, and Ernst Badian, later formed the basis of the honorific volume Imperium Sine Fine: T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman Republic, edited by J. Linderski.
Aequitas is the Latin concept of justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness. It is the origin of the English word "equity". In ancient Rome, it could refer to either the legal concept of equity, or fairness between individuals.
Friedrich Münzer was a German classical scholar noted for the development of prosopography, particularly for his demonstrations of how family relationships in ancient Rome connected to political struggles. He died in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
The Society for Classical Studies (SCS), formerly known as the American Philological Association (APA), founded in 1869, is a non-profit North American scholarly organization devoted to all aspects of Greek and Roman civilization. It is the preeminent association in the field, and publishes a journal, Transactions of the American Philological Association (TAPA). The APA is currently based at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia.
Jerzy Linderski is a Polish contemporary scholar of ancient history and Roman religion and law.
Lily Ross Taylor was an American academic and author, who in 1917 became the first female Fellow of the American Academy in Rome.
Richard John Alexander Talbert is a British-American contemporary ancient historian and classicist on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is William Rand Kenan, Jr., Professor of Ancient History and Classics. Talbert is a leading scholar of ancient geography and the idea of space in the ancient Mediterranean world.
Tenney Frank was a prominent ancient historian and classical scholar.
Agnes Freda Isabel Kirsopp Lake Michels known as "Nan" to her friends, was a leading twentieth century scholar of Roman religion and daily life and a daughter of the Biblical scholar Kirsopp Lake (1872–1946).
Gaius Claudius Glaber was a military commander of the late Roman Republic, holding the offices of legate and military praetor in 73 BC. He was defeated in the battle of Mount Vesuvius against the forces of Spartacus during the Third Servile War.
Tiberius Claudius Nero was a consul of the Roman Republic in 202 BC. He was the great-grandson of Appius Claudius Caecus.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica, in modern scholarship often referred to as Metellus Scipio, was a Roman consul and military commander in the Late Republic. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and the senatorial faction led by Pompeius Magnus, he remained a staunch optimate. He led troops against Caesar's forces, mainly in the battles of Pharsalus and Thapsus, where he was defeated. He later committed suicide. Ronald Syme called him "the last Scipio of any consequence in Roman history."
The Fasti Capitolini, or Capitoline Fasti, are a list of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, extending from the early fifth century BC down to the reign of Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Together with similar lists found at Rome and elsewhere, they form part of a chronology referred to as the Fasti Annales, Fasti Consulares, or Consular Fasti, or occasionally just the fasti.
In the constitution of ancient Rome, the lex curiata de imperio was the law confirming the rights of higher magistrates to hold power, or imperium. In theory, it was passed by the comitia curiata, which was also the source for leges curiatae pertaining to Roman adoption.
Publius Cloelius Siculus was appointed rex sacrorum in 180 BC, succeeding Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella. Valerius Maximus says that he was flamen dialis, and that he was compelled to resign because of improperly presented exta. The rex sacrorum traditionally held this title until his death; however, the date of Siculus' death is unknown.
Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus Maximus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 211 BC. As consul, Fulvius defended Rome against Hannibal with his colleague Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the Second Punic War.
Gaius Aemilius Mamercus was a Roman statesman who may have served as Dictator in 463 BC.
Anthony Philip Corbeill is an American professor of Classics. He is currently the Basil L. Gildersleeve Professor of Classics at the University of Virginia. He was formerly a professor at the University of Kansas.
The lex Cassia de senatu was a Roman law, introduced in 104 BC by the tribune L. Cassius Longinus. The law excluded from the senate individuals who had been deprived of imperium by popular vote or had been convicted of a crime in a popular assembly.