Thomas Roe

Last updated

Sir Thomas Roe
SirThomasRoe.jpg
Bornc. 1581
Low Leyton near Wanstead in Essex
Died6 November 1644 (aged 62–63)
Spouse(s)Lady Eleanor Beeston
Parent(s)Sir Robert Rowe
Elinor Jermy

Sir Thomas Roe (c. 1581 – 6 November 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. Roe's voyages ranged from Central America to India; as ambassador, he represented England in the Mughal Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Holy Roman Empire. He sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1644. Roe was an accomplished scholar and a patron of learning.

Contents

Life

Sir Thomas standing before the Great Moghul SIR THOMAS STOOD BEFORE THE MOGUL.gif
Sir Thomas standing before the Great Moghul

Roe was born at Low Leyton near Wanstead in Essex, the son of Sir Robert Rowe of Gloucestershire and Cranford, Middlesex, and his wife Elinor Jermy, daughter of Robert Jermy of Worstead, Norfolk. He matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford, on 6 July 1593, at the age of twelve. In 1597 he entered Middle Temple [1] and became esquire of the body to Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was knighted by James I on 23 July 1604, and became friendly with Henry, Prince of Wales, and also with Henry's sister Elizabeth, afterwards briefly Queen of Bohemia, with whom he maintained a correspondence and whose cause he championed.

Sir Thomas Roe died in 1644 at the age of about 63. [1] He was buried in the parish church of St. Mary in Woodford, London.

Family

Roe married Eleanor, Lady Beeston, the young widowed daughter of Sir Thomas Cave of Stanford-on-Avon, Northamptonshire in 1614, just weeks before embarking for India. [2] Eleanor did not go to India, but did accompany Roe on the subsequent embassy to Constantinople. The couple were childless and adopted an orphaned girl introduced by Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia. When Eleanor died in 1675 she was buried alongside him in the parish church of St. Mary, Woodford. [3]

Career

Amazon Explorer

In 1610, Roe was sent by Prince Henry on a mission to the West Indies, during which he visited Guiana and the Amazon River. He tried to reach the Lake Parime location of the fabled El Dorado, that was represented in the map of Thomas Harriot in 1596. However, he failed then, and in two subsequent expeditions, to discover the gold he was seeking.

Ambassador to the Mughal Empire

Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615-18, and others.jpg
Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others

In 1614, Roe was elected Member of Parliament for Tamworth. [1]

The East India Company persuaded King James to send Roe as a royal envoy to the Agra court of the Great Mughal Emperor, Jahangir. [4] Roe resided at Agra for three years, until 1619. At the Mughal court, Roe allegedly became a favourite of Jahangir and may have been his drinking partner; certainly he arrived with gifts of "many crates of red wine" [4] :16 and explained to him "What beere was? How made?" [4] :17

The immediate result of the mission was to obtain permission and protection for an East India Company factory at Surat. While no major trading privileges were conceded by Jahingir, "Roe's mission was the beginning of a Mughal-Company relationship that would develop into something approaching a partnership and see the EIC gradually drawn into the Mughal nexus". [4] :19

While Roe's detailed journals [5] are a valuable source of information on Jahangir's reign, the Emperor did not return the favour, with no mention of Roe in his own voluminous diaries. [4] :19

Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire

In 1621, Roe was elected MP for Cirencester. [1]

Roe received diplomatic credentials to the Ottoman Empire on 6 September, arriving at Constantinople in December. In this role, he obtained an extension of the privileges of the English merchants. He concluded a treaty with Algiers in 1624, by which he secured the liberation of several hundred English captives. He also gained the support, by an English subsidy, of the Transylvanian Prince Gabriel Bethlen for the European Protestant alliance and the cause of the Palatinate.

Through his friendship with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Cyril Lucaris, the famous Codex Alexandrinus was presented to James I, [6] and Roe himself collected several valuable manuscripts which he subsequently presented to the Bodleian Library. 29 Greek and other manuscripts, including an original copy of the synodal epistles of the council of Basle, he presented in 1628 to the Bodleian Library, after his letters of appointment had been revoked on 26 October 1627. [7] But Roe did not leave the Porte until June 1628. A collection of 242 coins was given by his widow, at his desire, to the Bodleian Library after his death. He also searched for Greek marbles on behalf of the Duke of Buckingham and the second Earl of Arundel. [8]

Diplomat in the Thirty Years War

In 1629, Roe was successful in another mission undertaken, to arrange a peace between Sweden and Poland. In so doing, he was able to help free up Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to intervene decisively in the Thirty Years War on the side of the Protestant German princes. Roe also negotiated treaties with Danzig and Denmark. A gold medal was struck in his honour on his return home in 1630 after attending the Diet of Regensburg.

In 1631, he sponsored the Arctic exploration of Luke Fox. Roes Welcome Sound was named in his honor. [9]

English statesman and envoy

In January 1637, Roe was appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, with a pension of £1200 a year.

In June 1640, Roe was made a privy councillor. In November of that year he was elected MP for Oxford University in the Long Parliament. He was appointed as England's ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire from 1641 to 1642. [10] He took part in the peace conferences at Hamburg, Regensburg and Vienna, and used his influence to obtain the restoration of the Palatinate, the emperor declaring that he had "scarce ever met with an ambassador till now."

Works

Sir Thomas Roe Travels to India
A Dutch account of Sir Thomas Roe's travel to Jahangir's court 3.jpg
A plan of travel to India
A Dutch account of Sir Thomas Roe's travel to Jahangir's court 2.jpg
Sir Thomas Roe meets Great Mughal
A Dutch account of Sir Thomas Roe's travel to Jahangir's court 1.jpg
The Great Mughal Court
A Dutch account of Sir Thomas Roe's travel to Jahangir's court

His Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mogul, 1615-1619, as narrated in his journal and correspondence , several times printed, has been re-edited, with an introduction by William Foster, for the Hakluyt Society (1899). This is a valuable contribution to the history of India in the early 17th century.

Vol. i. was published in 1740, but the work was not continued. Other correspondence, consisting of letters relating to his mission to Gustavus Adolphus, was edited by SR Gardiner for the Camden Society Miscellany (1875), vol. vii., and his correspondence with Lord Carew in 1615 and 1617 by Sir F. Maclean for the same society in 1860.

Several of his manuscripts are in the British Museum collections. Roe published a True and Faithful Relation ... concerning the Death of Sultan Osman ..., 1622; a translation from Paolo Sarpi,

Modern biographies

There are two modern biographies:

Related Research Articles

Jahangir 4th Mughal Emperor (1569–1627)

Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim, known by his imperial name, Jahangir, was the fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. His imperial name means 'conqueror of the world', 'world-conqueror' or 'world-seizer'.

John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg Elector of Brandenburg

John Sigismund was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern. He became the Duke of Prussia through his marriage to Duchess Anna, the eldest daughter of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia who died without sons. Their marriage resulted in the potential creation of Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a reality after Poland's leader appointed John Sigismund in charge of Prussia in regency and, shortly thereafter, Albert Frederick died without an able, direct male heir.

1615 Calendar year

1615 (MDCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1615th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 615th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1615, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

The 1610s decade ran from January 1, 1610, to December 31, 1619.Global Network 1616.

Guru Hargobind The sixth Sikh Guru and founder of the Akali Sena

Gurū Hargobind, revered as the sixth Nānak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Battle of Swally

The naval Battle of Swally, also known as Battle of Suvali, took place on 29–30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali a village near the Surat city and was a victory for four English East India Company galleons over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks.

Mughal painting South Asian painting in manuscript miniatures from the Mughal period

Mughal painting is a particular style of South Asian, particularly North Indian, painting confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums (muraqqa). It emerged from Persian miniature painting and developed in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries. The Mughal emperors were Muslims and they are credited with consolidating Islam in South Asia, and spreading Muslim arts and culture as well as the faith.

Shahryar Mirza De-facto Mughal Emperor

Salef-ud-din Muhammad Shahryar, better known as Shahryar Mirza, was the fifth and youngest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. After Jahangir's death, Shahryar made an attempt to become emperor, supported by his powerful stepmother Nur Jahan, who was also his mother-in-law. The succession was contested and though Shahryar exercised power, based in Lahore, from 7 November 1627 to 19 January 1628, he was defeated and was killed at the orders of his brother Khurram, better known as Shah Jahan once he took the throne. Shahryar would have been the fifth Mughal Emperor, but is usually not counted in the list of emperors.

Abul-Hasan (artist)

Abu'l-Hasan, from Delhi, India, was a Mughal painter of miniatures in the reign of Jahangir.

Events from the 1610s in England.

Flags of the Mughal Empire Banners and standards of the South Asian early modern empire

The Mughal Empire had a number of imperial flags and standards. The principal imperial standard of the Mughals was known as the alam. It was primarily moss green. It displayed a lion and sun facing the hoist of the flag. The Mughals traced their use of the alam back to Timur.

Christopher Brooke was an English poet, lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1604 and 1626.

Sir William Uvedale was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1645. He supported the Royalist cause in the Civil War.

Sir Henry St George (1581–1644) was an English Officer of arms. He was the third son of the herald Sir Richard St George and his wife Elizabeth St John..

Parviz Mirza Shahzada of the Mughal Empire

Parviz Mirza was the second son of Mughal emperor Jahangir from his wife, Sahib Jamal. His daughter, Nadira Banu Begum, later became the wife of Dara Shikoh.

Battle of Dewair (1606) 1606 battle between Mewar and Mughals

The Battle of Dewair (Dewar) was fought between Amar Singh I of Mewar and Mughal army led by Jahangir under Parviz and Asaf Khan III. Shortly after his accession in 1606, Jahangir sent an army of 20,000 cavalry to attack Mewar. Parviz was only the figurative commander while in reality the de facto commander was Jahangir who directed Asaf Khan.Amar Singh personally killed the Mughal commander Sultan Khan and his horse by spear which went through both sultan khan and his horse, due to which he is known as Chakrveer. Parviz and Asaf Khan retreated from the battlefield. He was able to defend his territories for the time being.

Bantam Presidency

Bantam Presidency was a presidency established by the British East India Company and based at the Company factory at Bantam in Java. Founded in 1617, the Presidency exercised its authority over all the Company factories in India, including the agencies of Madras, Masulipatnam and Surat. The factors at Bantam were instrumental in founding the colony of Madraspatnam in 1639 with the Fort St. George, which later grew into the modern city of Madras. The Presidency of Bantam was twice downgraded, first in 1630 before being restored in 1634 and for the second time in 1653, when owing to the hostility of Dutch traders, the Presidency was shifted to Madras.

Mughal clothing refers to clothing developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It was characterized by luxurious styles and was made with muslin, silk, velvet and brocade. Elaborate patterns including dots, checks, and waves were used with colors from various dyes including cochineal, sulfate of iron, sulfate of copper and sulfate of antimony were used.

Sir John Meyrick was an English merchant in Russia; he became the English ambassador to Russia during the reign of Tsar Boris Godunov.

It is a Palace built by Mughal Emperor Jahangir for hunting in 1615 and christened the place Chashma-i-Nur, after his own name, Nur-uddin Mohammad Jahangir. Now just ruined pavilion.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Williams, William Retlaw (1898). The parliamentary history of the county of Gloucester, including the cities of Bristol and Gloucester, and the boroughs of Cheltenham, Cirencester, Stroud, and Tewkesbury, from the earliest times to the present day, 1213-1898. Cornell University Library. Hereford : Priv. print. for the author by Jakeman and Carver.
  2. Michael Strachan, Sir Thomas Roe 1581-1644. A Life (Michael Russell, Salisbury, Wiltshire, 1989), p. 58.
  3. Strachan (1989), pp. 279-80.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Dalrymple, Willian (2019). The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company (1 ed.). London: Bloomsbury. pp. 15–19. ISBN   978-1-4088-6437-1.
  5. Roe, Sir Thomas (1899). Foster, W (ed.). The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mughal (Rev. 1926 ed.). London: Humphrey Milford.
  6. Negotiations, p. 618.
  7. Macray, Annals of the Bodleian, 2nd de., pp. 70, 72.
  8. Lee, Sidney, ed. (1897). "Roe, Thomas"  . Dictionary of National Biography . 49. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 91.
  9. Allen, Elsa Guerdrum (1951). "The History of American Ornithology before Audubon". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 41 (3): 387–591. doi:10.2307/1005629. hdl: 2027/uc1.31822011760568 . JSTOR   1005629.
  10. Gary M. Bell, A handlist of British diplomatic representatives 1509-1688 (Royal Historical Society, Guides and handbooks, 16, 1990).
Parliament of England
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Tamworth
1614
With: Sir Percival Willoughby
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Cirencester
1621–1622
With: Thomas Nicholas
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Oxford University
1640–1644
With: John Selden
Succeeded by