Thomas Romney Robinson
Robinson early in life
|Died||28 February 1882 89) (aged|
|Awards||Royal Medal (1862)|
Reverend John Thomas Romney RobinsonFRS FRSE DD DCL LLD (23 April 1792 – 28 February 1882), usually referred to as Thomas Romney Robinson, was a 19th-century astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the UK of its time.
He is remembered as inventor of the 4-cup anemometer.
Robinson was born at St Anne's in Dublin, the son of the English portrait painter Thomas Robinson (d.1810) and his wife, Ruth Buck (d.1826).He was educated at Belfast Academy then studied Divinity at Trinity College Dublin, where he was elected a Scholar in 1808, graduating BA in 1810 and obtaining a fellowship in 1814, at the age of 22. He was for some years a deputy professor of natural philosophy (physics) at Trinity.
Having been also ordained as an Anglican priest while at Trinity, he obtained the church livings of the Anglican Church at Enniskillen and at Carrickmacross in 1824.
In 1823, now aged 30, he additionally gained the appointment of astronomer at the Armagh observatory.From then on he always resided at the Armagh observatory, engaged in researches connected with astronomy and physics, until his death in 1882.
During the 1840s and 1850s Robinson was a frequent visitor to the world's most powerful telescope of that era, the so-called Leviathan of Parsonstown telescope, which had been built by Robinson's friend and colleague William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse. Robinson was active with Parsons in interpreting the higher-resolution views of the night sky produced by Parsons' telescope, particularly with regard to the galaxies and nebulae and he published leading-edge research reports on the question.Back at his own observatory in Armagh, Robinson compiled a large catalogue of stars and wrote many related reports. In 1862 he was awarded a Royal Medal "for the Armagh catalogue of 5345 stars, deduced from observations made at the Armagh Observatory, from the years 1820 up to 1854; for his papers on the construction of astronomical instruments in the memoirs of the Astronomical Society, and his paper on electromagnets in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy".
Robinson is also of note as the inventor of a device for measuring the speed of the wind, the Robinson cup-anemometer (1846).
He was president of the Royal Irish Academy from 1851 to 1856, and was a long-time active organiser in the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Robinson was a friend of Charles Babbage, who said was "indebted" for having reminded him about the first time he came up with the idea of the calculating machine.
He married twice: first Eliza Isabelle Rambaut (d.1839) and secondly Lucy Jane Edgeworth (1806–1897), the lifelong disableddaughter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth. His daughter married the physicist George Gabriel Stokes. Stokes frequently visited Robinson in Armagh in Robinson's later years.
On the Moon, Robinson (crater) is named in his honour.
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Messier 100 is an example of a grand design intermediate spiral galaxy located within the southern part of constellation Coma Berenices. It is one of the brightest and largest galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, located approximately 55 million light-years distant from Earth and has a diameter of 107,000 light years, roughly 60% the size of the Milky Way. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain on March 15, 1781 and was subsequently entered in Messier's catalogue of nebulae and star clusters after Charles Messier made observations of his own on April 13, 1781. The galaxy was one of the first spiral galaxies to be discovered, and was listed as one of fourteen spiral nebulae by Lord William Parsons of Rosse in 1850. Two satellite galaxies named NGC 4323--connected with M100 by a bridge of luminous matter--and NGC 4328 surround M100.
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