The Reverend Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing FRS, FLS (6 February 1835, London – 8 July 1926, Royal Tunbridge Wells) was a British zoologist, who described himself as "a serf to natural history, principally employed about Crustacea".Educated in London and Oxford, he only took to natural history in his thirties, having worked as a teacher until then. Although an ordained Anglican priest, Stebbing promoted Darwinism in a number of popular works, and was banned from preaching as a result. His scientific works mostly concerned crustaceans, especially the Amphipoda and Isopoda, the most notable being his work on the amphipods of the Challenger expedition.
Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing was born on 6 February 1835 in Euston Square, London, the seventh of thirteenor fourteen children, to the clergyman and editor of the Athenaeum , Henry Stebbing, and his wife, Mary Griffin. Thomas was educated at the King's College School, and afterwards entered King's College, London to study classics, graduating with a BA in 1855. He then matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford, before studied at Worcester College, Oxford, gaining a BA in law and modern history there in 1857 and an MA in 1859. Around this time, he was a master at Radley College and Wellington College. He took on various roles at Worcester College, including that of fellow (1860–1868), tutor (1865–1867), vice-provost (1865) and eventually dean (1866), as well as a lecturer in divinity. He resigned his fellowship in 1868. He was ordained into the Church of England by Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford in 1859.
By 1863, Stebbing had begun to work as a tutor in Reigate, Surrey, where he met the entomologist William Wilson Saunders, whose daughter Mary Anne was a capable botanist and illustrator.Stebbing took up the study of natural history around this time, and married Mary Anne in 1867. The couple moved to Torquay, Devon after their marriage, where Stebbing continued to work as a tutor and schoolmaster, and began to write about theology, Darwinism and natural history, partly under the influence of the naturalist William Pengelly.
In 1873, Stebbing produced his first paper on crustaceans, and began to study the Amphipoda the following year.In 1877, Stebbing moved to Royal Tunbridge Wells, where he lived in Ephraim Lodge, on the edge of Tunbridge Wells Common, to benefit from the greater number of students in London, and to be closer to the libraries, museums and scientific circles in the capital. As his finances improved, he was able to give up teaching altogether and concentrate on writing. He died in Ephraim Lodge on 8 July 1926. His funeral was held at St. Paul's Church, Rusthall, where Stebbing had officiated when requested; since its churchyard was inadequate, Stebbing's body was buried in the town's public cemetery. His wife survived him by only a few months.
Having trained as an evangelical Anglican, Stebbing expected to be a staunch opponent of Charles Darwin's recently published theory of evolution by natural selection.Stebbing reported that "on reading The Origin of Species , as a preliminary, it has to be confessed that, instead of confuting, I became his ardent disciple", and so he adopted the position of a religious rationalist. Following a critical review of The Descent of Man in The Times in 1871, Stebbing gained prominence by responding in Nature .
Stebbing wrote a number of essays on the topic of Darwinism, in which he dissected the argument posited against it, and questioned various aspects of Christianity,including the literal truth of the Book of Genesis, the doctrine of the Trinity, the divinity of Jesus, many of the Thirty-Nine Articles, miracles and prophecy. They included Essays on Darwinism (1871), Faith in Fetters (1919) and Plain Speaking (1926). His outspoken stance resulted in his being banned from preaching, and he was never offered a parish by the church.
Most of Stebbing's scientific works, comprising more than 110 papers, covered amphipod crustaceans.Rev. A. M. Norman, a member of the Challenger Committee, recommended that Stebbing produce a monograph on the amphipods collected on the 1872–1876 expedition by HMS Challenger, which he did, reproducing the original description for every genus, and providing an extensive bibliography of the group.
He also produced a monograph of the Cumacea, a natural history of the Crustacea, and a biography of the Scottish naturalist and founder of the University Marine Biological Station, Millport, David Robertson.In 1906, Stebbing published the volume on Gammaridea for the series Das Tierreich .
Stebbing was made a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 5 December 1895,a Fellow of the Royal Society on 4 June 1896, and was awarded the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society in 1908. He had strenuously advocated the admittance of women to the Linnean Society, and obtained a supplementary charter to allow it; his wife was among the first women to be admitted.
A number of animal species have been named in honour of Stebbing:
Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders. Its members, the malacostracans, display a great diversity of body forms and include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, amphipods, mantis shrimp and many other, less familiar animals. They are abundant in all marine environments and have colonised freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are segmented animals, united by a common body plan comprising 20 body segments, and divided into a head, thorax, and abdomen.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres and are mostly detritivores or scavengers. There are more than 9,900 amphipod species so far described. They are mostly marine animals, but are found in almost all aquatic environments. Some 1,900 species live in fresh water, and the order also includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator.
Gammaridea is one of the suborders of the order Amphipoda, comprising small, shrimp-like crustaceans. Until recently, in a traditional classification, it encompassed about 7,275 (92%) of the 7,900 species of amphipods described by then, in approximately 1,000 genera, divided among around 125 families. That concept of Gammaridea included almost all freshwater amphipods, while most of the members still were marine.
Phliantidae is a family of isopod-like amphipod crustaceans chiefly from the southern hemisphere.
Diastylidae is one of the eight most commonly recognised families of crustaceans of the order Cumacea. They are marine creatures especially common around the 30th parallel north.
Phylogeny of Malacostraca is the evolutionary relationships of the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders. Its members display a great diversity of body forms. Although the class Malacostraca is united by a number of well-defined and documented features, which were recognised a century ago by William Thomas Calman in 1904, the phylogenetic relationship of the orders which compose this class is unclear due to the vast diversity present in their morphology. Molecular studies have attempted to infer the phylogeny of this clade, resulting in phylogenies which have a limited amount of morphological support. To resolve a well-supported eumalacostracan phylogeny and obtain a robust tree, it will be necessary to look beyond the most commonly utilized sources of data.
Stenopodidae is a family of decapods in the order Decapoda. There are about 6 genera and more than 30 described species in Stenopodidae.
Nototropis falcatus is a species of amphipod crustacean. It is whitish in colour, with brown patches, and grows to a total length of around 7 mm (0.3 in). It lives on soft sediment such as fine sand at depths of 10 to 50 metres, from northern Norway to the west coast of Ireland, including the North Sea, and as far south as the southern Bay of Biscay.
Paramoera walkeri is an amphipod of the genus Paramoera. It lives around Antarctica.
The clade Multicrustacea constitutes the largest superclass of crustaceans, containing approximately four-fifths of all described crustacean species, including crabs, lobsters, shrimps, woodlice, prawns, krill, barnacles, crayfish, copepods, amphipods and others. The largest branch of multicrustacea is the class Malacostraca.
Detonidae is a family of woodlice in the order Isopoda. There are at least 3 genera and more than 30 described species in Detonidae.
Bathyporeiidae is a family of amphipods in the order Amphipoda. There are two genera in Bathyporeiidae:
Helleria brevicornis, the sole species of the monotypic genus Helleria, is a terrestrial woodlouse endemic to the islands and coastal regions of the northern Tyrrhenian sea. H. brevicornis is of interest due to its endemism, unique ecology and basal position in the suborder Oniscidea.
Mary Anne Stebbing FLS was a botanist and botanical illustrator. She was the daughter of botanist and entomologist William Wilson Saunders and wife of zoologist Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing.
Unciolidae is a family of crustaceans in the order Amphipoda. There are about 9 genera and more than 20 described species in Unciolidae.
Oziidae is a family of crabs in the order Decapoda. There are about 7 genera and more than 30 described species in Oziidae.
William Stebbing was a British journalist.
Eupraxie Fedorovna Gurjanova was a Soviet hydrobiologist, carcinologist and zoogeographer, specialist in the systematics of isopod crustaceans and amphipods, doctor of biological sciences.
Anuropus is a genus of isopods in the suborder Cymothoida. As of 2021, it is the only genus in the family Anuropidae.