Thomas Rupert Jones FRS (1 October 1819 – 13 April 1911) was a British geologist and palaeontologist.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work.
Jones was born on 1 October 1819 in Cheapside, London, the son of John Jones, silk merchant, and his wife Rhoda (née Burberry) Jones of Coventry. While at a private school at Ilminster, his attention was attracted to geology by the fossils that are so abundant in the Lias quarries. In 1835 he was apprenticed to a surgeon at Taunton, and he completed his apprenticeship in 1842 at Newbury in Berkshire.
Ilminster is a town and civil parish in the countryside of south west Somerset, England, with a population of 5,808. Bypassed in 1988, the town now lies just east of the junction of the A303 and the A358. The parish includes the hamlet of Sea.
A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record.
Taunton is a large regional town in Somerset, England. The town's population in 2011 was 69,570. Taunton has over 1,000 years of religious and military history, including a 10th century monastery and Taunton Castle, which has origins in the Anglo Saxon period and was later the site of a priory. The Normans then built a stone structured castle, which belonged to the Bishops of Winchester. The current heavily reconstructed buildings are the inner ward, which now houses the Museum of Somerset and the Somerset Military Museum.
He was then engaged in practice mainly in London, until in 1849 he was appointed assistant secretary to the Geological Society of London. In 1862 he was made professor of geology at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Having devoted his especial attention to microfossils, he now became the highest authority in Britain on the Foraminifera and those Entomostraca that were regarded Ostracoda later on. He edited the 2nd edition of Mantell's Medals of Creation (1854), the 3rd edition of Mantell's Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight (1854), and the 7th edition of Mantell's Wonders of Geology (1857); he also edited the 2nd edition of F. Dixon's Geology of Sussex (1878).Jones was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1872 and was awarded the Lyell Medal by the Geological Society in 1890. For many years he was specially interested in the geology of South Africa.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with more than 12,000 Fellows. Fellows are entitled to the postnominal FGS, over 2,000 of whom are Chartered Geologists (CGeol). The Society is a Registered Charity, No. 210161. It is also a member of the Science Council, and is licensed to award Chartered Scientist to qualifying members.
The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.
Foraminifera are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell of diverse forms and materials. Tests of chitin are believed to be the most primitive type. Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment, while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths. Fewer are known from freshwater or brackish conditions, and some very few (nonaquatic) soil species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA.
He died and was buried at Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire. He had married twice: firstly to Mary, daughter of William Harris of Charing, Kent, and secondly to Charlotte Ashburnham, daughter of Archibald Archer.
Chesham Bois is a village in Buckinghamshire, England, adjacent to both Amersham and Chesham.
His publications included:
The Geological Magazine is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1864, covering the earth sciences. It publishes original scientific research papers on geological topics. The journal is published bimonthly by Cambridge University Press.
The Geologists' Association (GA) is a British association concerned with the study of geology.
Gideon Algernon Mantell MRCS FRS was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. His attempts to reconstruct the structure and life of Iguanodon began the scientific study of dinosaurs: in 1822 he was responsible for the discovery of the first fossil teeth, and later much of the skeleton, of Iguanodon. Mantell's work on the Cretaceous of southern England was also important.
Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche KCB, FRS was an English geologist and palaeontologist, the first director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, who helped pioneer early geological survey methods. He was the first President of the Palaeontographical Society.
Etheldred Benett was an early English geologist often credited with being the "First Female Geologist". Benett devoted much of her life collecting and studying fossils that she discovered in South West England. Etheldred Benett’s fossil collection was considered one of the largest at the time. She worked closely with many principal geologists of the time and her fossil collection played a part in the development of geology as a field of science. Gideon Mantell, discoverer of the Iguanadon, was so inspired by Benett's work he named a Cretaceous sponge after her called the "hoplites benettianus".
John Phillips FRS was an English geologist. During 1841 he published the first global geologic time scale based on the correlation of fossils in rock strata, thereby helping to standardize terminology including the term Mesozoic, which he invented.
Prof Arthur Holmes FRS FRSE LLD was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology. He pioneered the use of radiometric dating of minerals and was the first earth scientist to grasp the mechanical and thermal implications of mantle convection, which led eventually to the acceptance of plate tectonics.
Thomas Davidson was a British palaeontologist.
William Crawford Williamson was an English naturalist and palaeobotanist.
John William Salter was an English naturalist, geologist, and palaeontologist.
Henry Bolingbroke Woodward was an English geologist and paleontologist known for his research on fossil crustaceans and other arthropods.
Robert Etheridge FRS FRSE FGS was an English geologist and palaeontologist.
Thomas Oldham was an Anglo-Irish geologist.
Wilfred Hudleston Hudleston FRS was an English geologist.
Prof William Johnson Sollas PGS FRS FRSE LLD was a British geologist and anthropologist. After studying at the City of London School, the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines he matriculated to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was awarded First Class Honours in geology. After some time spent as a University Extension lecturer he became Lecturer in Geology and Zoology at University College, Bristol in 1879, where he stayed until he was offered the post of Professor of Geology at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1897 he was offered the post of Professor of Geology at the University of Oxford, which he accepted.
Irene Crespin was an Australian geologist and micropalaeontologist. Irene's interest in geology brought her attention to Frederick Chapman - who was a palaeontologist at the National Museum of Victoria. Irene became his assistant and later replaced his role as a palaeontologist in the Department of the Interior - receiving half his salary, equipment and office space because she was a woman. Crespin began her research by examining and locating fossils across Australia.
Frederick Chapman was the inaugural Australian Commonwealth Palaeontologist.
Thomas Stanley Westoll, FRS FRSE, FGS was a British geologist, and the long-time head of the Department of Geology at Newcastle University.
Henry Hurd Swinnerton (1875–1966) was a British geologist. He was professor of geology at University College Nottingham from 1910 to 1946.
The Palaeontographical Society is a learned society, established in 1847, and is the oldest extant Society devoted to the advancement of palaeontological knowledge.
Thomas Wayland Vaughan was an American geologist and oceanographer. He worked with the United States Geological Survey and United States National Museum, investigating the geology of the West Indies, Panama Canal Zone, and the eastern coast of North America. In 1924 Vaughan became director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and held the post until his retirement in 1936. His research work concentrated on the study of corals and coral reefs, the investigation of larger foraminifera, and oceanography.
Charles Stokes was a London stockbroker who gained a reputation both as an amateur scientist and as an art collector.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
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