|Thomas Rutherford Bacon|
|Born||Thomas Rutherford Bacon|
June 26, 1850
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
|Died|| March 26, 1913 62) (aged|
Berkeley, California, U.S.
|Employer|| Congregationalist Church |
University of California (1888-1913)
|Known for|| Mugwump |
United States presidential election of 1884
|Relatives|| Leonard Woolsey Bacon |
Edward Woolsey Bacon
George B. Bacon
Thomas Rutherford Bacon (June 26, 1850 in New Haven, Connecticut – March 26, 1913 in Berkeley, California ) was an American Congregational clergyman and leading Mugwump. In the wake of the presidential election of 1884, he relocated to the West Coast, where he became a professor of history at the University of California.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley. It borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills. The 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Thomas Rutherford Bacon came from a family of preachers: he was the son of Leonard Baconand the brother of Leonard Woolsey Bacon, Edward Woolsey Bacon (of New London, Connecticut ), and George B. Bacon, all Congregational preachers.
Reverend Leonard Bacon was an American Congregational preacher and writer. He held the pulpit of the First Church New Haven and was later professor of church history and polity at Yale College.
Leonard Woolsey Bacon was an American clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut. He was a social commentator and a prolific author on religious, social, and historical matters. In social, political, and religious issues of his times, he often broke with the traditions of his countrymen, sometimes causing "great sensation."
Edward Woolsey Bacon was an American Congregational clergyman, as well as a sailor and a soldier.
Bacon graduated from Yale Divinity School in 1877.At Yale, he was the editor of the Yale Banner and contributed to The Yale Record . At the time, The Yale Record was edited by Walker Blaine, son of Republican James G. Blaine.
The School of Divinity at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, is one of twelve graduate or professional schools within Yale University.
The Yale Record is the campus humor magazine of Yale University. Founded in 1872, it became the oldest humor magazine in the world when Punch folded in 2002.
Walker Blaine was an official in the United States Department of State.
He was a minister for three years at the Dwight Place Church in New Haven, Connecticut. On July 4, 1884, he delivered an oration on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the town.
The New York Times praised Bacon for his integrity and "manliness," and called him "the original mugwump of Connecticut."The "Mugwumps" were Republican political activists who left the United States Republican Party to support Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. During the Third Party System, party loyalty was held in high regard and independents were rare.
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 125 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U.S.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the world's oldest extant political parties. The party values reflect economic conservatism, classical conservatism and corporate liberty rights. It is the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its primary rival, the Democratic Party. The party emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas–Nebraska Act, an act that dissolved the terms of the Missouri Compromise and allowed slave or free status to be decided in the territories by popular sovereignty. The early Republican Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States, but by 1858 it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
In 1884, he resigned unexpectedly, after some gossiping members of his congregations ("without standing or influence") had apparently complained about him. The New York Times later reported that Blaine's campaign was behind the gossip. The congregation was, according to the papers, moved to tears when Bacon, who was described as "young, talented, eloquent, and popular," read his resignation letter. There were hints of an investigation, and the possible "disciplining [of] certain folks whose too freely wagging tongues have brought about the trouble."
James Gillespie Blaine was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. Blaine twice served as Secretary of State, one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents, and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds".
After his church career in New Haven was ended, he devoted himself to literary pursuits,publishing in the New Englander and serving as that magazine's associate editor from 1886 to 1887; he also edited the New Haven Morning News, from 1884 to 1887.
In June 1887, his brother Edward died in Santa Clara County, California,and in that same year (until 1890) Thomas took up the ministry of the First Congregational Church in Berkeley, where Edward had also, briefly, been a minister. In 1888, he became an instructor in the history department at the University of California, and from 1890 to 1895 was a professor in European history. In 1895, he was promoted to full professor in Modern European History, a position he held—in worsening health—until his death in 1913.
Reverend Abraham Pierson was the first rector, from 1701 to 1707, and one of the founders of the Collegiate School — which later became Yale University. He was born in Southampton, Long Island, where his father, the Rev. Abraham Pierson (Sr.), was the pastor of the Puritan (Congregational) church. At that time, Southampton and much of eastern Long Island were administered as part of the Connecticut Colony.
Timothy Dwight was an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister, theologian, and author. He was the eighth president of Yale College (1795–1817).
Noah Thomas Porter III was an American academic, philosopher, author, lexicographer and President of Yale College (1871–1886).
Thomas Clap or Thomas Clapp was an American academic and educator, a Congregational minister, and college administrator. He was both the fifth rector and the earliest official to be called "president" of Yale College (1740–1766). He is best known for his successful reform of Yale in the 1740s, partnering with the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson to restructure the forty-year-old institution along more modern lines. He convinced the Connecticut Assembly to exempt Yale from paying taxes. He opened a second college house and doubled the size of the college; Yale graduated more students than Harvard beginning in 1756. He introduced Enlightenment math and science and Johnson's moral philosophy into the curriculum, while retaining its Puritan theology. He also helped found the Linonian Society in 1753, a literary and debating society and one of Yale's oldest secret societies. He personally built the first Orrery in America, a milestone of American science, and awarded his friend Benjamin Franklin an honorary degree.
The Mugwumps were Republican political activists who bolted from the Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine. In a close election, the Mugwumps supposedly made the difference in New York state and swung the election to Cleveland. The jocular word "mugwump", noted as early as 1832, is from Algonquian mugquomp, "important person, kingpin", implying that they were "sanctimonious" or "holier-than-thou" in holding themselves aloof from party politics.
George Hoadly was a Democratic politician. He served as the 36th Governor of Ohio.
Theodore Dwight Woolsey was an American academic, author and President of Yale College from 1846 through 1871.
Bacon is a Norman French surname originally from Normandy and England. In early sources, it also appears as "Bachun" and "Bacun".
Jeremiah Day was an American academic, a Congregational minister and President of Yale College (1817–1846).
George Trumbull Ladd was an American philosopher, educator and psychologist.
Sereno Edwards Dwight was an American author, educator, and Congregationalist minister, who served as Chaplain of the Senate.
Thomas Mantle Murray is an American organist, known as an interpreter of Romantic organ music. He is currently a Professor of Music and university organist at the Yale School of Music. He is also Principal Organist and Artist in Residence at Christ Church in New Haven, Connecticut.
Rev. Thomas Robbins, D.D. was a Congregational minister, a bibliophile, and an antiquarian. He became the first librarian of the Connecticut Historical Society.
The Hollis Street Church in Boston, Massachusetts, was a Congregational and Unitarian church. It merged with the South Congregational Society of Boston in 1887.
George Blagden Bacon was a United States clergyman and author of texts on religious issues. Bacon was a congregational pastor in Orange, New Jersey. The ministry ran in the Bacons' blood: George B. Bacon was the son of Leonard Bacon and the brother of Leonard Woolsey Bacon, both Congregationalist pastors; two other brothers were also preachers, Thomas Rutherford Bacon of New Haven, and Edward Woolsey Bacon of New London, Connecticut.
William Augustus Larned was an American minister and professor at Yale College.
William Thompson Bacon was an American minister, editor, and author.