Thomas Rutherford Bacon

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Thomas Rutherford Bacon
BornThomas Rutherford Bacon
(1850-06-26)June 26, 1850
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Died March 26, 1913(1913-03-26) (aged 62)
Berkeley, California, U.S.
Nationality American
Education Yale University
Occupation Minister, Professor
Employer Congregationalist Church
University of California (1888-1913)
Known for Mugwump
United States presidential election of 1884
Political party Democrat
Parent(s) Leonard Bacon
Relatives Leonard Woolsey Bacon
Edward Woolsey Bacon
George B. Bacon

Thomas Rutherford Bacon (June 26, 1850 in New Haven, Connecticut March 26, 1913 in Berkeley, California [1] ) was an American Congregational clergyman and leading Mugwump. [2] In the wake of the presidential election of 1884, he relocated to the West Coast, where he became a professor of history at the University of California.

New Haven, Connecticut City in Connecticut, United States

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.

Berkeley, California City in California, United States

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley. It borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills. The 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.



Early Background

Thomas Rutherford Bacon came from a family of preachers: he was the son of Leonard Bacon [3] and the brother of Leonard Woolsey Bacon, [4] Edward Woolsey Bacon (of New London, Connecticut [5] ), and George B. Bacon, [6] [7] all Congregational preachers.

Leonard Bacon American Congregational preacher and writer.

Reverend Leonard Bacon was an American Congregational preacher and writer. He held the pulpit of the First Church New Haven and was later professor of church history and polity at Yale College.

Leonard Woolsey Bacon was an American clergyman, born in New Haven, Connecticut. He was a social commentator and a prolific author on religious, social, and historical matters. In social, political, and religious issues of his times, he often broke with the traditions of his countrymen, sometimes causing "great sensation."

Edward Woolsey Bacon was an American Congregational clergyman, as well as a sailor and a soldier.

Bacon graduated from Yale Divinity School in 1877. [1] At Yale, he was the editor of the Yale Banner and contributed to The Yale Record . [8] At the time, The Yale Record was edited by Walker Blaine, son of Republican James G. Blaine. [9]

Yale Divinity School

The School of Divinity at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, is one of twelve graduate or professional schools within Yale University.

<i>The Yale Record</i>

The Yale Record is the campus humor magazine of Yale University. Founded in 1872, it became the oldest humor magazine in the world when Punch folded in 2002.

Walker Blaine American lawyer

Walker Blaine was an official in the United States Department of State.

"Original Mugwump" and the Election of 1884

Mugwump cartoon mocking Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine in an 1884 issue of Puck Bernard Gilliam - Phryne before the Chicago Tribunal.jpg
Mugwump cartoon mocking Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine in an 1884 issue of Puck

He was a minister for three years at the Dwight Place Church in New Haven, Connecticut. On July 4, 1884, he delivered an oration on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the town. [10]

The New York Times praised Bacon for his integrity and "manliness," and called him "the original mugwump of Connecticut." [11] The "Mugwumps" were Republican political activists who left the United States Republican Party to support Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. During the Third Party System, party loyalty was held in high regard and independents were rare.

<i>The New York Times</i> Daily broadsheet newspaper based in New York City

The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 125 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U.S.

History of the United States Republican Party

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the world's oldest extant political parties. The party values reflect economic conservatism, classical conservatism and corporate liberty rights. It is the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its primary rival, the Democratic Party. The party emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas–Nebraska Act, an act that dissolved the terms of the Missouri Compromise and allowed slave or free status to be decided in the territories by popular sovereignty. The early Republican Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States, but by 1858 it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.

Republican Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

In 1884, he resigned unexpectedly, after some gossiping members of his congregations ("without standing or influence") had apparently complained about him. The New York Times later reported that Blaine's campaign was behind the gossip. The congregation was, according to the papers, moved to tears when Bacon, who was described as "young, talented, eloquent, and popular," read his resignation letter. There were hints of an investigation, and the possible "disciplining [of] certain folks whose too freely wagging tongues have brought about the trouble." [12]

James G. Blaine American Republican politician

James Gillespie Blaine was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. Blaine twice served as Secretary of State, one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents, and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds".

After Blaine's Defeat

After his church career in New Haven was ended, he devoted himself to literary pursuits, [2] publishing in the New Englander [13] [14] and serving as that magazine's associate editor from 1886 to 1887; he also edited the New Haven Morning News, from 1884 [8] to 1887.

In June 1887, his brother Edward died in Santa Clara County, California, [15] and in that same year (until 1890) Thomas took up the ministry of the First Congregational Church in Berkeley, [1] where Edward had also, briefly, been a minister. [15] In 1888, he became an instructor in the history department at the University of California, and from 1890 to 1895 was a professor in European history. In 1895, he was promoted to full professor in Modern European History, a position he held—in worsening health—until his death in 1913. [1]

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  1. 1 2 3 4 Henderson, Victor H. (1913). "University Record". University of California Chronicle. University of California. 15: 285. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  2. 1 2 "Some Hit and Miss Chat; Stray Bits of Gossip from an Observer's Note Book. A Dream's Strange Sequel--one of Leonard Bacon's Sons--Clevelands of the Last Century". The New York Times. 7 September 1885. p. 2. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  3. Clark, Joseph Sylvester; Dexter, Henry Martyn; Quint, Alonzo Hall; Langworthy, Isaac Pendleton; Cushing, Christopher; Burnham, Samuel (July 1868). "American Congregational Union". The Congregational Quarterly . 10: 299–309. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
  4. General Council of the Congregational and Christian Churches of the United States, Executive Committee (1908). The Year book of the Congregational Christian churches of the United States of America. p. 12. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  5. National Council of the Congregational Churches of the United States. Publishing Committee (1880). The Congregational year-book. 2. Congregational Pub. Society. p. 62. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  6. "Rev. of Leonard Woolsey Bacon, Church Papers". New Englander and Yale Review . 37 (142): 133–35. January 1878. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  7. Memorial biographies of New England historic genealogical society, 1853–1855, Volume 8. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 1907. p. 83.
  8. 1 2 "Thomas Rutherford Bacon". The tenth general catalogue of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Bethlehem, PA: The Comenius Press. March, 1888. p. 220.
  9. "Editors Yale Record". The Yale Banner. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, Printers. 1874. p. 78.
  10. Bacon, Thomas Rutherford (1885). N. G. Osborn and B. Mansfield, ed. The hundredth anniversary of the city of New Haven: with the oration by Thomas Rutherford Bacon, July 4, 1884. New Haven: General committee on the centennial celebration. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  11. "Some Hit and Miss Chat; Stray Bits of Gossip from an Observer's Note Book. A Dream's Strange Sequel--one of Leonard Bacon's Sons--Clevelands of the Last Century". The New York Times. September 7, 1885.
  12. "Bacon's Unexpected Resignation.a New-haven Congregational Church Losing its Pastor on Account of the Dissatisfaction of a Few Members". The New York Times. 24 March 1884. p. 1. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  13. Bacon, Thomas Rutherford (January 1890). "An English Man of Letters - The Friend of Men of Letters - Edward Fitzgerald". New Englander. 52 (238): 24–32. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  14. Bacon, Thomas Rutherford (October 1891). "Prayer in a Universe of Law". New Englander. 55 (258): 362–67. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  15. 1 2 "Death of Edward Woolsey Bacon" (PDF). The New York Times. 12 June 1887. p. 4. Retrieved 2 March 2010.