Major Thomas Ryan (c.1790–??) soldier and penal administrator, was acting commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from July 1839 until the arrival of Alexander Maconochie in March 1840.
Norfolk Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with the two neighbouring islands Phillip Island and Nepean Island it forms one of the Commonwealth of Australia's external territories. At the 2016 Australian census, it had 1748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi). Its capital is Kingston.
Although he regarded the convicts as having been sent to the island for punishment, he tried to give them hope of release at some future time. Rations were increased, meals inspected, and well behaved and willing convicts were allowed to maintain gardens.
The history of Norfolk Island dates back to the fourteenth or fifteenth century when it was settled by Polynesian seafarers.
Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentence was served, they generally did not have the resources to get themselves back home.
Port Arthur is a small town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. Port Arthur is one of Australia's most significant heritage areas and an open-air museum.
Alexander Maconochie was a Scottish naval officer, geographer, and penal reformer.
Thomas Rowley was a soldier and landholder in the convict settlement of New South Wales, Australia. His background is unknown, and his poor grammar and spelling suggest that he was not well educated. He was appointed adjutant of the New South Wales Corps in 1789 and promoted to lieutenant in 1791.
Lieutenant Colonel James Thomas Morisset, penal administrator, was commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from 29 June 1829 to 1834.
Captain Richard Turton was an officer of the 40th Regiment stationed at Sydney. He was selected to lead the first party of convicts in the re-establishment of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island. The island had been abandoned since the first convict settlement was finally removed in 1814. The new settlement was intended to be the most severe settlement, where the worst convicts would be sent, without hope of escape and offering, in Governor Darling's view, “the extremest punishment short of death”. With 34 soldiers, 57 convicts, and 12 soldiers' wives and children, he landed on 6 June 1825. Most of the convicts were tradesmen to clear the regrowth and prepare buildings. A treadmill was planned, but never sent.
Captain Vance Young Donaldson, soldier and penal administrator, was born in Tyrone and entered the army at the age of thirteen, serving in the 57th Regiment under Wellington.
Captain Thomas Edward Wright, soldier and penal administrator, of the 39th Regiment was the third commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from August 1827 to 1828.
Captain Joseph Wakefield, soldier and penal administrator, of the 39th Regiment was the acting commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from November 1828 to 29 June 1829.
Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Anderson CB KH, soldier and penal administrator, of the 50th Regiment, was commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from March 1834 to February 1839. Anderson was also a politician, a member of the Victorian Legislative Council from 1852 to 1856.
Major Joseph Childs (1787–1870) was a British Royal Marines officer and penal administrator; he was commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from 7 February 1844 to August 1846.
Thomas Bunbury was a British army officer. He joined the 90th Regiment in 1807 and fought in the Peninsular War. He joined the 80th Regiment in 1822 and served in Australia, New Zealand and India.
Captain Rupert Deering, soldier and penal administrator, of the 99th Regiment was commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, from the departure of John Price in January 1853 to September of the same year.
Captain H. Day, soldier and penal administrator, was commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, during its last days from September 1853 to May 1855.
Thomas Samuel Stewart was the Commissariat Storekeeper at Norfolk Island when it was finally abandoned as a convict settlement. He remained on the island with five of the best behaved convicts to act as caretakers until the new settlers from Pitcairn's Island arrived on 8 June 1856.
Foster Fyans (1790–1870), soldier, penal administrator and public servant, was acting commandant of the second convict settlement at Norfolk Island, the first police magistrate at Geelong, and commissioner of crown lands for the Portland Bay pastoral district in the Port Phillip District of New South Wales.
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported from Britain to various penal colonies in Australia.
Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area (KAVHA) is an old settlement on the Kingston coastal plains, southern side of Norfolk Island, consisting of a large group of buildings from the British Empire's convict era (1788–1855), now considered to be of such cultural significance to Australia and to the World that the area has been formally inscribed onto both the Australian National Heritage List and UNESCO's World Heritage list as amongst:
" .. the best surviving examples of large-scale convict transportation and the colonial expansion of European powers through the presence and labour of convicts."
The Frederick escape was an 1834 incident in which the brig Frederick was hijacked by ten Australian convicts and used to abscond to Chile, where they lived freely for two years. Four of the convicts were later recaptured and returned to Australia, where they escaped the death sentence for piracy through a legal technicality.
Margaret Hazzard 1910 – 19 January 1987 was an Australian author born in Hertfordshire, England.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
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