|Thomas S. McMurry|
|23rd Mayor of Denver|
|Preceded by||M. D. Van Horn|
|Succeeded by||Henry V. Johnson|
|Died|| 1918 (aged 62–63)|
Thomas S. McMurry (1855–1918) was an American politician who served as the mayor of Denver, Colorado from 1895 to 1899.A lawyer by trade, McMurry came to Denver in 1885.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, approximately 12 mi (19 km) east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, and it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station.
Colorado is a state of the Western United States, and more specifically of the Southwestern United States, encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census.
In 1893 Denver received a new municipal charter by the state legislature that decentralized much of the mayor's powers into six different administrative departments, two of which were elected, two appointed by the mayor, and the remaining two appointed by the governor. Clyde Lyndon King, in his doctoral thesis writes "The plan gave the maximum of opportunity for [political] party groups and corporate control." The municipal board members appointed by the governor had complete financial control over the police, fire, and excise departments. Over half the expenditures of the city went through this board which gave the governor and his party much direct control over Denver. That the governor, elected by the entire state, had so much power over the workings of Denver was not lost on the citizens of the city.
A city charter or town charter is a legal document (charter) establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages.
An excise or excise tax is any duty on manufactured goods which is levied at the moment of manufacture, rather than at sale. Excises are often associated with customs duties ; customs are levied on goods which come into existence – as taxable items – at the border, while excise is levied on goods which came into existence inland.
One of the other key issues leading up to the Denver mayoral election of 1895 was Denver Tramway's monopoly over the public transportation in the city. In 1885 Denver Tramway had revised its charter so that it was no longer required to add extensions or provide better service, but while there was competition it still did so. In 1893 it merged with the only other public transportation firm in the city and came into a monopoly. Resentment began to grow as the city took actions which favorably impacted Denver Tramway but received no financial compensation in return.
The Denver Tramway, operating in Denver, Colorado, was a streetcar system incorporated in 1886. The tramway was unusual for a number of reasons: the term "tramway" is generally not used in the United States, and it is not known why the company was named as such. The track was 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge, an unusual gauge in the United States, but in general use by railways in Japan, southern Africa, New Zealand, and Queensland, Australia.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, and that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow or downsize, and change the nature of their business or competitive position.
In 1895, Thomas McMurry ran for mayor of Denver on a political platform of "divorcing the city's government from the city's public-service corporations." Previous to this election, Denver had always voted for straight Democrat or Republican tickets. McMurry was the first non-partisan mayor elected in Denver's history. Denver Tramway offered the city a token sum of $50,000 but McMurry vetoed this offering, wanting instead a small percentage of the company's yearly profits.
Another issue in the 1895 election involved the water utilities. Leading up to the election some of the local water utilities had gone bankrupt and a new public-service corporation was created, the Denver Union Water Company, which acquired the previous nine independent utilities. In the election the citizens of Denver were asked whether they wanted to stay with this new corporation or build a new municipal water utility. Denver Union Water promised to abide by all previous charters and a new city council was elected that was evenly divided between the two options. However, after the election Denver Union Water said that conflicting clauses in the different charters made it impractical to implement its previous rates and offered a solution that it said would ultimately reduce rates. A court injunction demanded that the water company fix its rates as laid out in its contract, but the company continued to use its own solution.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
The issue of water bill rates was the single largest concern in the election of 1897. Many water users refused to pay their water bills and McMurry was re-elected "with the help of the Civic Federation and the vote of the women."More court injunctions were issued, ordinances were passed, and fines were assessed but Denver Union Water ignored all of them. In a case brought by McMurry before the District Court of Arapahoe County, the court sided with the water company and found that conflicting clauses were impractical to implement and allowed the water company to increase its rates. McMurry continued to pressure the company to lower its rates, but had no power to force it to do so.
Arapahoe County is one of the 64 counties in the U.S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 572,003, making it the third-most populous county in Colorado. The county seat is Littleton, and the most populous city is Aurora. The county was named for the Arapaho Native American tribe who once lived in the region.
In 1899 the public corporations were determined to defeat McMurry and campaigned against him. King notes, "In the [1899 mayoral] campaign certain members of the Democratic party, motivated and financed by the city's public service corporations, organized the 'big mitt,' the famous ballot-box stuffing brigade. By many it is charged and believed that McMurray's defeat was due solely to ballot-box stuffing." McMurry lost the election and his successor, Henry V. Johnson, who had agreed on the campaign trail about divorcing the city's government and corporations, accepted Denver Tramway's revised one-time payment of $72,000. With McMurry's defeat the public-service corporations did not see a significant challenge to their power for another decade.
William Forrester Owens is an American attorney, author, and former politician who served as the 40th Governor of Colorado from 1999 to 2007. Owens was re-elected in 2002 by the largest majority in Colorado history, after making transportation, education, and tax cuts the focus of his governorship.
John Long Routt was an American politician of the Republican Party. Born in Eddyville, Kentucky, he served as the first and seventh Governor of Colorado from 1876 to 1879 and 1891 to 1893. He also served as Mayor of Denver, Colorado from 1883 to 1885. He died in Denver, Colorado.
Municipalization is the transfer of corporations or other assets to municipal ownership. The transfer may be from private ownership or from other levels of government. It is the opposite of privatization and is different from nationalization. The term municipalization largely refers to the transfer of ownership of utilities from Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) to public ownership, and operation, by local government whether that be at the city, county or state level. While this is most often applied to electricity it can also refer to solar energy, water, sewer, trash, natural gas or other services.
Davis Hanson Waite was an American politician. He was a member of the Populist Party, and he served as the eighth Governor of Colorado from 1893 to 1895.
Hazen Stuart Pingree was a four-term Republican mayor of Detroit (1889–1897) and the 24th Governor of the U.S. State of Michigan (1897–1901). A Yankee who migrated from New England, he was a successful Republican businessman turned politician.
The Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) is the public utilities commission of the state of Kansas run by three Commissioners appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Senate. The Commission has the responsibility of ensuring that natural gas, electricity, telephone, and transportation vendors provide safe, adequate, and reliable services at reasonable rates. Notwithstanding the commission's name, it does not charter corporations; that function is performed by the office of the Secretary of State.
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The Government of Denver makes up the public sector of the City and County of Denver, Colorado.
The Government of Colorado is the governmental structure as established by the Constitution of the State of Colorado. It is composed of three branches: the executive branch headed by the Governor, the legislative branch consisting of the General Assembly, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court and lower courts. The constitution also allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall and ratification.
The history of Denver details the history of the City and County of Denver, Colorado, United States from its founding in 1858 to modern-day. Located on the banks of the South Platte River close to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, Denver was founded in November 1858 as a gold mining town. The gold quickly dried up and the city moved to become a supply hub for new mines in the mountains. Denver grew rapidly, becoming the new county seat of Arapahoe County and eventually the state capital. Investors from Denver built a rail line from Cheyenne to western Kansas which traveled through Denver, bringing new people and supplies. New roads and improvements to rail and air travel in the early twentieth century made Denver a hub for transportation. Until World War II Denver's economy was dependent mainly on the processing and shipping of minerals and ranch products. With war looming, Denver was in a prime location for more federal activity, being situated far from either coast. After the war oil and gas companies fueled a skyscraper boom in the downtown area. With the combined spending of the energy companies and the federal government, Denver expanded quickly. Denver went from having a small urban core surrounded by rural farms to a booming downtown dotted with skyscrapers and surrounded by growing suburbs.
The Oklahoma Corporation Commission is the public utilities commission of the U.S state of Oklahoma run by three statewide elected commissioners. Authorized to employ more than 400 employees, it regulates oil and gas drilling, utilities and telephone companies.
The Constitution of the State of Colorado is the foundation of the laws and government of the U.S. state of Colorado. The current, and only, Colorado State Constitution was drafted on March 14, 1876; approved by Colorado voters on July 1, 1876; and took effect upon the statehood of Colorado on August 1, 1876. From 1876 through 2007, the Colorado Constitution was amended 152 times. The Constitution of Colorado provides and derives its authority from the sovereignty of the people and is the foremost source of state law. In addition to providing for voting, the people of Colorado have reserved initiative of laws and referendum of laws enacted by the legislature to themselves and provided for recall of office holders.
The Judiciary of Colorado is established and authorized by Article VI of the Colorado Constitution as well as the law of Colorado. The various courts include the Colorado Supreme Court, Colorado Court of Appeals, Colorado district courts, Colorado county courts, Colorado water courts, and municipal courts. The administration of the state judicial system is the responsibility of the Chief Justice of the Colorado Supreme Court as its executive head, and is assisted by several other commissions. In Denver, the county and municipal courts are integrated and administratively separate from the state court system.
The Arizona Corporation Commission is the Public Utilities Commission of the State of Arizona, established by Article 15 of the Arizona Constitution. Arizona is one of only fourteen states with elected commissioners. The Arizona constitution explicitly calls for an elected commission, as opposed to a governor-appointed commission, which is the standard in most states, because its drafters feared that governors would appoint industry-friendly officials. They are directly elected statewide and serve staggered four-year terms.
Denver Water serves 1.4 million people in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, and a portion of its surrounding suburbs. Established in 1918, the utility is a public agency funded by water rates and new tap fees, not taxes. It is Colorado's oldest and largest water utility.
Cole Finegan is an American lawyer who served as Denver’s City Attorney and Chief of Staff to then Mayor John Hickenlooper from 2003 through 2006. He is now the Regional Managing Partner of the Americas for Hogan Lovells and Managing Partner of the global legal giant's Denver office. Finegan also acts as an adviser to Governor Hickenlooper and U.S. Senator Michael Bennet, and serves as Finance Chair for Senator Bennet’s 2016 re-election campaign and was a Co-Chair of Governor Hickenlooper’s re-election campaign. He was one of only four Colorado Finance Co-Chairs for President Obama’s 2012 re-election campaign. Finegan was selected as a "Lawyer of the Decade" by Law Week Colorado; as Lawyer of the Year 2013; and was also named one of the most influential people in Denver by 5280 magazine.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Denver, Colorado, United States from its founding in 1858 to the present.
The Denver streetcar strike of 1920 was a labor action and series of urban riots in downtown Denver, Colorado, beginning on August 1, 1920, and lasting six days. Seven were killed and 50 were seriously injured in clashes among striking streetcar workers, strike-breakers, local police, federal troops and the public. This was the "largest and most violent labor dispute involving transportation workers and federal troops".