Thomas S. Pettit

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Thomas Pettit
Thomas-S.-Pettit.jpg
Born(1843-12-21)December 21, 1843
Frankfort, Kentucky
Died November 29, 1931(1931-11-29) (aged 87)
Owensboro, Kentucky
Alma mater Georgetown College
Occupation Newspaper publisher
Known for Publisher of the Owensboro Monitor; active in Democratic politics
Political party Democrat; Populist
Spouse(s)Margaret Blair(m. 1870–1913)
Alice Frakes(m. 1916–1931)

Thomas Stevenson Pettit (December 21, 1843 November 29, 1931) was a newspaper publisher and politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. Orphaned at age ten, he found work in a printing house in his hometown of Frankfort. In 1864, he moved to Owensboro, Kentucky, and purchased a newspaper called the Monitor. He incurred the wrath of Union Army General Stephen G. Burbridge because he vigorously criticized the Republicans' policies during the Civil War; Burbridge ordered Pettit arrested and relocated behind Confederate lines for the duration of the war.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Kentucky State of the United States of America

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, (because in Kentucky's first constitution, the name state was used) Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth. Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States.

Frankfort, Kentucky Capital of Kentucky

Frankfort is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the seat of Franklin County. It is a home rule-class city in Kentucky; the population was 25,527 at the 2010 census. Located along the Kentucky River, Frankfort is the principal city of the Frankfort, Kentucky Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Franklin and Anderson counties.

Contents

Following the war, Pettit returned to Owensboro and revived the Monitor. He became involved in politics, serving as personal secretary to Governor James B. McCreary and Reading Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. In the early 1890s, he began to split from the Democrats' political philosophy and was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives as an Independent. He was the Populist Party's nominee for governor in the 1895 gubernatorial election. Although he fell well short of election, his presence on the ticket drew enough votes from Democratic candidate Parker Watkins Hardin to give the election to William O. Bradley, who became Kentucky's first Republican governor. Pettit never again sought public office, but amassed a sizable personal fortune through various business investments in and around Owensboro. He died November 29, 1931. The town of Pettit, Kentucky was built on land he helped clear and was named in his honor.

Governor of Kentucky head of state and of government of the U.S. commonwealth of Kentucky

The Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the head of the executive branch of government in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Fifty-seven men and one woman have served as Governor of Kentucky. The governor's term is four years in length; since 1992, incumbents have been able to seek re-election once before becoming ineligible for four years. Throughout the state's history, four men have served two non-consecutive terms as governor, and two others have served two consecutive terms. Kentucky is one of only five U.S. states that hold gubernatorial elections in odd-numbered years immediately before the United States Presidential Election. The current governor is Matt Bevin, who was first elected in 2015.

James B. McCreary Governor of Kentucky, United States Senator, United States Representative

James Bennett McCreary was an American lawyer and politician from the US state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of the U.S. Congress and served as its 27th and 37th governor. Shortly after graduating from law school, he was commissioned as the only major in the 11th Kentucky Cavalry, serving under Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan during the American Civil War. He returned to his legal practice after the war. In 1869, he was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives where he served until 1875; he was twice chosen Speaker of the House. At their 1875 nominating convention, state Democrats chose McCreary as their nominee for governor, and he won an easy victory over Republican John Marshall Harlan. With the state still feeling the effects of the Panic of 1873, most of McCreary's actions as governor were aimed at easing the plight of the state's poor farmers.

The Reading Clerk of the United States House of Representatives reads bills, motions, and other papers before the House and keeps track of changes to legislation made on the floor. During the vote for Speaker at the beginning of each Congress, or when the electronic voting system fails, the clerk calls the roll of members for a recorded vote.

Early life

Thomas Pettit was born December 21, 1843, in Frankfort, Kentucky. He was the son of Franklin Duane and Elizabeth (Zook) Pettit. [1] Franklin Pettit, who co-published The Kentucky Farmer with Thomas B. Stevenson, died when his son Thomas was very young. Soon after, Thomas' mother also died, leaving him an orphan at the age of ten. [1]

Printing career

Pettit supported himself by working in a print shop. [1] He was educated in the common schools of Frankfort and briefly attended Georgetown College in Georgetown, Kentucky. [1] In 1864, he moved to Owensboro, Kentucky, where he purchased a local newspaper called the Monitor. [2] Upon taking control of the paper, he published a series of items vigrously criticizing the Republican Party and its policies during the Civil War. [3] On November 17, 1864, Pettit was arrested on orders from General Stephen G. Burbridge on charges of being "notoriously disloyal" to the Union. [3] He was taken to Memphis, Tennessee, and transferred into Confederate territory; he continued to travel behind Confederate lines for the duration of the war. [2]

Georgetown, Kentucky City in Kentucky, United States

Georgetown is a home rule-class city in Scott County, Kentucky, in the United States. The 2017 population was 33,660 per the United States Census Bureau. It is the 7th-largest city by population in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It is the seat of its county. It was originally called Lebanon when founded by Rev. Elijah Craig and was renamed in 1790 in honor of President George Washington. It is the home of Georgetown College, a private liberal arts college. Georgetown is part of the Lexington-Fayette, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Owensboro, Kentucky City in Kentucky, United States

Owensboro is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Daviess County, Kentucky, United States. It is the fourth-largest city in the state by population. Owensboro is located on U.S. Route 60 about 107 miles (172 km) southwest of Louisville, and is the principal city of the Owensboro metropolitan area. The 2015 population was 59,042. The metropolitan population was estimated at 116,506.

Republican Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

In May 1865, Pettit returned to Owensboro and found his print shop and printing press destroyed by federal authorities. [2] He traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio to purchase replacement equipment and, on hearing the story of his arrest and subsequent travels, the equipment dealer extended him a generous line of credit, allowing him to purchase more sophisticated equipment than had ever before been used in Owensboro. [2] With this new equipment, Pettit revived the Monitor and published his stories of wartime banishment, bringing him significant acclaim in Kentucky. [3] Moreover, he also published editorials by future U.S. Senator Thomas C. McCreery, giving the Monitor further credibility and increasing its readership. [2]

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

Thomas C. McCreery American politician

Thomas Clay McCreery was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Kentucky.

In December 1870, Pettit married Margaret Blair, the daughter of a prominent Owensboro merchant. [4] The couple had one son, Harvey Blair Pettit. [4]

After many years of publishing the Monitor, Pettit sold the paper to Urey Woodson, who changed its name to the Owensboro Messenger (now the Messenger-Inquirer ). [2]

Political career

In 1868, Pettit was elected assistant reading clerk in the Kentucky House of Representatives, a position he held for six years. [2] Through the influence of Senator Thomas McCreery, Pettit was appointed assessor of internal revenue for the second district by President Andrew Johnson in 1869 and served in this capacity through the end of Johnson's term. [3] Upon James B. McCreary's election as governor of Kentucky in 1874, Pettit accepted an appointment as the governor's private secretary. [2] He later resigned this position after being elected Reading Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. [2] He retained this position until the Republicans regained a majority in the House in the elections of 1880. [2]

In 1882, Pettit sought election to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing the Second District. [3] He lost in the Democratic primary by 150 votes to James Franklin Clay of Henderson. [3] The vote of Union County was thought to be the deciding factor in the primary. [3]

Contemporary biographers opined that Pettit had probably attended more Democratic state conventions than anyone else in Kentucky. [2] [3] At each convention he attended, he was elected secretary. [3] He served as one of the secretaries at the 1884 Democratic National Convention; four years later, he was again chosen as a convention secretary and a member of the committee to officially notify Grover Cleveland and Allen G. Thurman of their nominations for president and vice-president, respectively. [2] In 1890, he was chosen as a delegate to the Kentucky constitutional convention. [2] He successfully advocated for many changes to the Kentucky Constitution including the use of secret ballot voting in state elections and the requirement of a two-thirds majority for conviction in civil court cases. [2]

In the early 1890s, Pettit's views began to differ from those of the Democratic Party. [2] [3] Immediately following the constitutional convention, he was elected as an Independent to represent Daviess County in the state House of Representatives. [2] Though he was elected by a large majority, his candidacy was bitterly contested in his district. [2] At the organizational meeting of the General Assembly, he received four votes for Speaker of the House, all from representatives of districts in western Kentucky. [5]

Estranged from the Democratic Party by his refusal to identify with them during his race for the House, Pettit became a leader of the Populist Party in Kentucky. [2] In 1893, he sought re-election to his seat as a Populist but was badly defeated by a Democratic candidate. [6] Redistricting and an inefficient legislative session were factors in the defeats of several Populist candidates during the 1893 elections. [6]

In July 1895, the Populist Party nominated Pettit for governor. [7] He received the endorsement of Louisville's New South newspaper, one of the largest black newspapers in the state. [8] The American Protective Association (APA), an influential society opposed to Catholicism, endorsed the entire Republican ticket except the party's gubernatorial candidate, William O. Bradley. [9] The APA withheld its endorsement from Bradley because of rumors that some of his family members were Catholic, and the society was thought to favor Pettit until Bradley was reported to have joined the society in September 1895, forestalling their endorsement of Pettit. [9] Pettit was not invited to participate in a series of debates held throughout the state between Bradley and Democratic nominee Parker Watkins Hardin. [10]

In the general election, Pettit garnered 16,911 votes, compared to 172,436 for Bradley and 163,524 for Hardin. [8] Although he had not been elected, his presence on the ballot had taken a significant number of Democratic votes from Hardin and resulted in the election of Bradley, Kentucky's first Republican governor. [2]

Later life and death

Pettit never again sought public office, but remained interested and active in politics, notably campaigning for William Goebel during the contentious 1899 gubernatorial election. [3] [11] He engaged in clearing and improving land in Daviess County, and the settlement that grew up on this land was named Pettit in his honor. [2] Through a series of investments in various business ventures, Pettit built a substantial personal fortune. [2] A prominent philanthropist, Pettit identified with the Presbyterian church and served as president of the Owensboro Masonic Temple and Grand Master of the Kentucky Order of the Free and Accepted Masons. [2]

Pettit's wife died in June 1913. [12] In September 1916, he married Alice Frakes. [12] Pettit died in Owensboro on November 29, 1931.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Connelley and Coulter, p. 157
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Connelley and Coulter, p. 158
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Biographical Cyclopedia, p. 141
  4. 1 2 Biographical Cyclopedia, p. 142
  5. Tapp and Klotter, p. 326
  6. 1 2 Tapp and Klotter, p. 333
  7. Tapp and Klotter, p. 495
  8. 1 2 Harrison and Klotter, p. 267
  9. 1 2 "Gov. Bradley A.P.A. Candidate". The New York Times
  10. Tapp and Klotter, p. 351
  11. Tapp and Klotter, p. 502
  12. 1 2 Connelley and Coulter, p. 159

Bibliography