Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset

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Thomas Sackville

Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset by John De Critz the Elder.jpg
Lord High Treasurer
In office
15 May 1599 19 April 1608
Monarch Elizabeth I
James I
Preceded by William Cecil,1st Baron Burghley
Succeeded by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Personal details
Born1536
Buckhurst, Sussex
Kingdom of England
Died19 April 1608(1608-04-19) (aged 71–72)
Westminster, London
Kingdom of England
Spouse(s)Cicely Baker
Children7, including Robert and William
Parents Richard Sackville
Winifred Brydges
Arms of Sir Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, KG Coat of arms of Sir Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, KG.png
Arms of Sir Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, KG

Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536 19 April 1608) was an English statesman, poet, and dramatist. He was the son of Richard Sackville, a cousin to Anne Boleyn. He was a Member of Parliament and Lord High Treasurer.

Sir Richard Sackville of Ashburnham and Buckhurst in Sussex and Westenhanger in Kent; was an English administrator and Member of Parliament.

Anne Boleyn Second wife of Henry VIII of England

Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII. Their marriage, and her execution by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; the marriage plans were broken off, and instead she secured a post at court as maid of honour to Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon.

Lord High Treasurer English government position

The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third-highest-ranked Great Officer of State, below the Lord High Steward and the Lord High Chancellor.

Contents

Biography

Early life

Thomas Sackville was born at Buckhurst, in the parish of Withyham, Sussex. His mother Winifrede was the daughter of Sir John Bridges, Lord Mayor of London. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained his M.A., and Hertford College, Oxford. [1] He joined the Inner Temple, and was called to the bar. [2]

The Lord Mayor of London is the City's mayor and the leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City of London, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers, rights and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London.

St Johns College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion, learning and research. It is one of the larger Oxbridge colleges in terms of student numbers. For 2018, St. John’s was ranked 9th of 29 colleges in the Tompkins Table with over 30% of its students earning First-class honours.

Hertford College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

Hertford College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on Catte Street in the centre of Oxford, directly opposite the main gate to the Bodleian Library. The college is known for its iconic bridge, the Bridge of Sighs. There are around 600 students at the college at any one time, comprising undergraduates, graduates and visiting students from overseas.

Political career

He first entered the House of Commons in 1558 as one of the knights of the shire for Westmorland. In 1559 he was elected for East Grinstead, and then in 1563 for Aylesbury. [3]

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Knight of the shire was the formal title for a member of parliament (MP) representing a county constituency in the British House of Commons, from its origins in the medieval Parliament of England until the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 ended the practice of each county forming a single constituency. The corresponding titles for other MPs were burgess in a borough constituency and baron for a Cinque Ports constituency. Knights of the shire had more prestige than burgesses, and sitting burgesses often stood for election for the shire in the hope of increasing their standing in Parliament.

Westmorland was a constituency covering the county of Westmorland in the North of England, which returned Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

In 1566 Sackville travelled to Rome, where he was arrested and detained as a prisoner for fourteen days, for reasons not clear, but at the time there was great tension between England and the Papacy.[ citation needed ] His father died that year and he returned to England. [2] In 1567 he was created Baron Buckhurst, of Buckhurst in the County of Sussex. His first important mission came in 1571, when he was sent to bear Queen Elizabeth's congratulations to Charles IX of France on his marriage to Elizabeth of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Maximilian, and more importantly to negotiate the matter of the proposed alliance between Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou, brother of the French king. [2]

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

The title Baron Buckhurst has been created twice; once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was first created in 1567 for Thomas Sackville, MP for East Grinstead and Aylesbury. He was later created Earl of Dorset in 1604. That creation became extinct in 1843.

In 1572, he was one of the peers who sat on the trial of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. In 1586 he was selected to convey to Mary, Queen of Scots, the sentence of death confirmed by the English Parliament. In 1587 he went as ambassador to the United Provinces, upon their complaint against the Earl of Leicester; but, although he performed his trust with integrity, the favourite had sufficient influence to get him recalled; and on his return, he was ordered to confinement in his own house, for nine or ten months. [4] He incurred Queen Elizabeth's displeasure by what she called his "shallow judgement in diplomacy".[ citation needed ] However his disgrace was short, for in 1588 he was presented with the Order of the Garter, and was sent again to the Netherlands in 1589 and 1598. [2]

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk English noble

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Although hailing from a family with strong Catholic leanings, he was raised a Protestant. He was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, and held many high offices during her reign.

Mary, Queen of Scots 16th-century Scottish ruler and queen consort of France

Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or simply United Provinces, and commonly referred to historiographically as the Dutch Republic, was a confederal republic formally established from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first fully independent Dutch nation state.

In 1591, Sackville was elected chancellor of the University of Oxford. In 1599 he succeeded William Cecil, Lord Burghley, as Lord Treasurer, a position he kept until his death, and was a capable, if uninspired, financial manager. In 1601 as high steward he pronounced sentence on the Earl of Essex, who had been his rival for the chancellorship and his opponent in politics.

University of Oxford university in Oxford, United Kingdom

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ‘ancient universities’ are frequently jointly called ’Oxbridge’. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex 16th-century English nobleman

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC, was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup d'état against the government and was executed for treason.

James I confirmed him in the office of lord treasurer, and in 1604 he was created Earl of Dorset. [2]

In 1604, Sackville bought Groombridge Place in Kent. His other houses included Knole House, in Sevenoaks, Kent, Michelham Priory, in East Sussex, and Dorset House, near Fleet Street, London, later burnt down in the Great Fire of London. [5] Queen Elizabeth acquired the manor of Bexhill in 1590 and granted it to Sackville. He was also the last Sackville to be lord of the manor of Bergholt Sackville (named after the Sackville family) and Mount Bures in Essex, which he sold in 1578 to one Alice Dister. Both properties had been in the Sackville family for 459 years. [6] In August 1605 Dorset recommended "Mr Thorpe" to survey and make "plots" for the rebuilding of Ampthill for Anne of Denmark and Prince Henry. [7]

In April 1607 he wrote to George More of Loseley asking him to influence the Countess of Cumberland to arrange the marriage of her daughter Lady Anne Clifford to his grandson Richard Sackville. [8]

Literary and commercial

In addition to his political career, Sackville is remembered for his literary contributions. With Thomas Norton, he was an author in 1561 of the first English play to be written in blank verse, Gorboduc , which deals with the consequences of political rivalry. It was performed as part of the Christmas festivities (1560–1561) by the society of the Inner Temple, and afterwards on 18 January 1561 before Elizabeth at Whitehall.

He also contributed to the 1563 edition of The Mirror for Magistrates , with the poem Complaint of Henry, Duke of Buckingham. Sackville's first important literary work was the poem Induction, which describes the poet's journey to the infernal regions, where he encounters figures representing forms of suffering and terror. The poem is noted for the power of its allegory and for its sombre stateliness of tone.

The armour of Thomas Sackville, made in the Greenwich Royal Workshops. Dorsetarmour.jpg
The armour of Thomas Sackville, made in the Greenwich Royal Workshops.

Sackville acquired a large fortune through his land dealings in many counties, as well as from his investments in the iron foundry business. He was an advocate of stronger enforcement of the sumptuary laws, which regulated the types of clothing allowed to be worn by the various social classes, within the military. Specifically, he dictated that only soldiers holding the rank of colonel or above should be permitted to wear silk and velvet, and that captains and all ranks below should "make do with fustian and spend the remaining money on their arms." [9]

In around 1587, Sackville was granted a royal licence to commission a suit of armour from the royal workshops at Greenwich. The finely etched, blued and gilt armour, a garniture for the field, is one of the finest and best-preserved examples of the Greenwich school of armour-making known to exist. It is now part of the Wallace Collection in London. [10] Another, similar suit of armour, featuring the same construction and decorative scheme, which belonged to Sir James Scudamore, can be seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

He died suddenly at the council table, having apparently suffered a stroke, referred to as "a dropsy on the brain". His funeral took place at Westminster Abbey, and he is buried in the Sackville family vault at Withyham parish Church, East Sussex.

Family

In 1555, Sackville married Cicely Baker, daughter of the leading politician Sir John Baker. [11] They had seven children, including his heir Robert, and Sir William Sackville, knighted by Henry IV of France. [12]

A daughter Anne married Sir Henry Glemham, and Mary married Lord Bergavenny. John Chamberlain recorded their reputation for learning in April 1606, as "complete women for learning, language, and all other rare qualities." [13]

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References

  1. "Sackville, Thomas (SKVL571T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Chisholm 1911, p. 432.
  3. "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  4. The Life of Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536–1608). Luminarium.org. Retrieved on 17 March 2011
  5. Henry Benjamin Wheatley, Peter Cunningham, London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions, p. 515. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  6. Jon Lander, A Thousand Years of Village News, (Jon Lander, 1999), p. 15
  7. HMC Salisbury Hatfield, vol. 17 (London, 1938), pp. 349–50.
  8. HMC 7th Report (More Molyneux) (London, 1879), p. 668.
  9. Gravett, Christopher (2006). Tudor Knight. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   1-84176-970-3.
  10. Sir James Mann, Wallace Collection Catalogues: European Arms and Armour (London: The Wallace Collection, 1962), pp. 78–83, pls. 43-5.; A. V. B. Norman, Wallace Collection Catalogues: European Arms and Armour Supplement (London: The Wallace Collection, 1986), pp. 33–6.
  11. Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset
  12. Hardin, Richard F. "Sackville, Sir William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/40547.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. Norman McClure, Letters of John Chamberlain, vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1939), p. 227.

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
The Lord Lumley
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex
jointly with The Viscount Montagu
The Lord De La Warr

1570–1585
Succeeded by
The Lord Howard of Effingham
Vacant
Title last held by
Richard Sackville
Custos Rotulorum of Sussex
bef. 1573–1608
Succeeded by
The Earl of Arundel
Preceded by
The Lord Burghley
Lord High Treasurer
1599–1608
Succeeded by
The Earl of Salisbury
Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Christopher Hatton
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1591–1608
Succeeded by
Richard Bancroft
Peerage of England
New creation Earl of Dorset
1604–1608
Succeeded by
Robert Sackville
Baron Buckhurst
1567–1608