Sir Thomas Salter Pyne(1860–1921) was a British engineer based in Afghanistan.
He was born in Broseley, Shropshire, the son of John Pyne and Alice Salter. He was apprenticed to an engineer at the age of 15, becoming manager of a foundry and engineering works by 1879.
In 1883, he went out to India, where he worked for the merchant Thomas Acquin Martin for a few years. In 1887, when Martin was appointed Agent by Abdur Rahman Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan, he was sent by Martin to Kabul to be Chief Engineer of Afghanistan. There, as the first European to live in Afghanistan since the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1879–81, he trained the local people to make guns, swords, ammunition, coins, soap, candles, etc. On behalf of Martin's firm, he built an arsenal, a mint and various factories and workshops, employing in total some 4,000 workers.
In 1893, he was sent to India by the Amir as a Special Ambassador, and at the conclusion of the negotiations was invested a Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) and knightedby the British government in recognition of his services. He was also a vital contact with the Durand Mission who were defining the borders of Afghanistan. He left the Amir's service in 1899 because of failing health and was replaced by Thomas Martin's younger brother Frank. He received a diamond inlaid watch from the Amir as a token of thanks.
He died in 1921. Sir Mortimer Durand said of him, "Pyne has gained a remarkable position in Afghanistan... The more I have to do with him, the more respect I feel for his sagacity."
Abdur Rahman Khan GCSI was Amir of Afghanistan from 1880 to his death in 1901. He is known for uniting the country after years of internal fighting and negotiation of the Durand Line Agreement with British India.
European influence in Afghanistan has been present in the country since the Victorian era, when the competing imperial powers of Britain and Russia contested for control over Afghanistan as part of the Great Game.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 resulted in the Afghans gaining control of foreign affairs from Britain and the British recognizing the Durand Line as the border between Afghanistan and British India. According to British author Michael Barthorp, it was a strategic victory for the British because the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the border between Afghanistan and India, and the Afghans agreed not to foment trouble on the British side. However, Afghans who were on the British side of the border did cause concerns due to revolts.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. The war was part of the Great Game between the British and Russian empires.
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, was a British Anglo-Indian diplomat and member of the Indian Civil Service.
Colonel Sir Robert Warburton was an Anglo-Afghan soldier and administrator. Half-Afghan and proficient in Pashtu, he served for many years as British political officer in charge of the Khyber Pass, a region of strategic importance to British India. He helped maintain peace with the Afridis who rose in revolt eighteen years after his retirement.
The Battle of Hyderabad, sometimes called as the Battle of Dubbo was one of the major campaigns of the British against then Sindh led by the Talpurs which was fought on 24 March 1843 between the forces of the British East India Company and the Talpur Mirs of Sindh near Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. A small British force, led by Captain James Outram, were attacked by the Talpurs and forced to make a fort of the British residence, which they successfully defended until they finally escaped to a waiting river steamer. After the British victory at Meeanee, Sir Charles James Napier continued his advance to the Indus River and attacked the Sindh capital of Hyderabad. Hyderabad was defended by 20,000 troops and Baloch tribes under the command of His Highness Mir Sher Muhammad Khan Talpur "Sher-i-Sindh" and Hosh Mohammad Sheedi. Charles Napier with a force of only 3,000 men but with artillery support stormed the city. During the battle, Hosh Mohammad Sheedi was killed and his forces routed; Talpurs resistance collapsed and Sindh came under British control.
Nawab Khan Bahadur Sahibzada Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan KCIE, hailing from Topi, Swabi District, British India was an educationist and politician. Qayyum Khan helped Mortimer Durand during his negotiation of the Durand Line agreement with Afghanistan in 1893. Qayyum Khan became the first Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province on 1 April 1937. He is also known for establishing the Islamia College, Peshawar on the mould of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's policy of educating Muslims.
Major-General Sir Henry Marion Durand, was a British military officer in the Bengal Army and served as Lieutenant Governor of Punjab from 1870 until his death in 1871.
The following lists events that happened during 1900 in Afghanistan.
The First Mohmand campaign was a British military campaign against the Mohmands from 1897 to 1898.
Major General Sir Charles Metcalfe MacGregor KCB CSI CIE was a British explorer, geographer and officer of the British Indian Army. He was the Quartermaster General for the British Army in India, the head of the Intelligence Department for the British Indian Army and served under Frederick Roberts in the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The MacGregor Medal is awarded in his honour.
Colonel Sir Charles Edward Yate, 1st Baronet, was an English soldier and administrator in British India and later a politician in Britain.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Francis Henry Humphrys (24 April 1879 – 28 August 1971) was a British cricketer, colonial administrator and diplomat.
Sir Louis William Dane was an Anglo-Irish administrator during the time of the British Raj.
Nawab Muhammad Hayat Khan Khattar (1833–1901) was a Punjabi Muslim who served the Government of British India and rose to considerable distinction.
The New Year Honours 1894 were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by members of the British Empire. They were published in The Times on 1 January 1984 and in The London Gazette on 2 January 1894.
Aman ul-Mulk was the Mehtar of Chitral, Ghizer, Yasen and Ishkoman and Suzerain of Kafiristan. He ruled the State of Chitral from 1857 to 1892. His rule saw Chitral reach its territorial peak, extending from Ishkamun in Gilgit Agency to Asmar in Afghanistan. His death led to the Siege of Chitral, an instance of high drama which goes down in the annals of British India as an epic of enormous courage and determination.
Sir Thomas Acquin Martin was an English industrial pioneer in India, and agent-general for Afghanistan.
Sir Richard Udny, KCSI was an official in British India, best known for his role in defining the border with the Emirate of Afghanistan. He took part in the border survey for the stretch between the Hindu Kush range in the north-east to Landi Kotal. This demarcation was the first stage in making the Durand Line of 1893 concrete in geographical terms, a process that lasted into the 20th century.