Thomas Sanderson, 1st Baron Sanderson

Last updated

The Lord Sanderson

Thomas Henry Sanderson Vanity Fair 10 November 1898.jpg
Personal details
Born11 January 1841 (1841-01-11)
Gunton Park, Norfolk, England
Died21 March 1923 (1923-03-22) (aged 82)
Wimpole Street, London, England
Parents Richard Sanderson
Hon. Charlotte Matilda Manners-Sutton
OccupationCivil servant

Thomas Henry Sanderson, 1st Baron Sanderson GCB KCMG ISO (11 January 1841 – 21 March 1923) was a British civil servant. He was Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1894 and 1906. [1]

Imperial Service Order award in British honours system

The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. It was awarded on retirement to the administration and clerical staff of the Civil Service throughout the British Empire for long and meritorious service. Normally a person must have served for 25 years to become eligible, but this might be shortened to 16 years for those serving in unsanitary locations. There was one class: Companion. Both men and women were eligible, and recipients of this order are entitled to use the post-nominal letters 'ISO'.

This is a list of Permanent Under-Secretaries in the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office since 1790.


Background and education

Sanderson was born at Gunton Park, about six miles north of Aylsham, Norfolk, the second son of Richard Sanderson, Member of Parliament for Colchester from 1832 to 1847, and the Honourable Charlotte Matilda Sanderson Manners-Sutton, elder daughter of Charles Manners-Sutton, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1817 to 1835. He was educated at Eton until he was forced to leave the school in 1857 due to the poor state of his family's finances, caused by the death of his father in October of that year, and his father's business in East India failing.

Aylsham market town on the River Bure in north Norfolk, England

Aylsham is a historic market town and civil parish on the River Bure in north Norfolk, England, nearly 9 mi (14 km) north of Norwich. The river rises near Melton Constable, 11 miles (18 km) upstream from Aylsham and continues to Great Yarmouth and the North Sea, although it was only made navigable after 1779, allowing grain, coal and timber to be brought up river.

Norfolk County of England

Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich (213,000), Great Yarmouth (63,000), King's Lynn (46,000) and Thetford (25,000).

Richard Sanderson was a British merchant, banker, and Conservative and Tory politician.


Sanderson entered the Foreign Office as a junior clerk in 1859 and was not to leave the Foreign Office until his retirement in 1906. In December 1863 Sanderson accompanied Lord Wodehouse to Berlin and Copenhagen on his special mission during the Schleswig-Holstein crisis. Early in his career he crossed paths with Lord Stanley, later 15th Earl of Derby. Sanderson became Stanley's private secretary in July 1866 and left an impression on Stanley, who described him as 'the best of the juniors' [2] on exit from office, after Benjamin Disraeli's first government fell in the 1868 December General Election. In 1871 he went to Geneva during the arbitration between the United Kingdom and the USA on the Alabama claims. He was later private secretary to Foreign Secretary Lord Granville between 1880 and 1885, Senior Clerk at the Foreign Office between 1885 and 1889, Assistant Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1889 and 1894 and Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1894 and 1906. On 20 December 1905 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Sanderson, of Armthorpe in the County of York. [3]

John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley British diplomat

John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley,, known as The 3rd Baron Wodehouse from 1846 to 1866, was a British Liberal politician. He held office in every Liberal administration from 1852 to 1895, notably as Secretary of State for the Colonies and as Foreign Secretary.

Schleswig-Holstein State in Germany

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.

Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby,, known as Lord Stanley from 1851 to 1869, was a British statesman. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs twice, from 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1878, and also twice as Colonial Secretary in 1858 and from 1882 to 1885.

Personal life

Sanderson's nickname was 'Lamps' due to his strong spectacles. He died unmarried at Wimpole Street, London, in March 1923, aged 82, when the barony became extinct.

Wimpole Street street in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

Wimpole Street is a street in Marylebone, central London. Located in the City of Westminster, it is associated with private medical practice and medical associations. No. 1 Wimpole Street is an example of Edwardian baroque architecture, completed in 1912 by architect John Belcher as the home of the Royal Society of Medicine. 64 Wimpole Street is the headquarters of the British Dental Association.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest city within the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Related Research Articles

Earl of Derby title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby British Prime Minister

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury British politician

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,, styled Lord Robert Cecil before his grandfather died in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years. A member of the Conservative Party, he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords.

Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook British politician

Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook,, known as Gathorne Hardy until 1878, was a prominent British Conservative politician, a moderate, middle-of-the road Anglican. He held cabinet office in every Conservative government between 1858 and 1892 and notably served as Home Secretary from 1867 to 1868 and as Secretary of State for War from 1874 to 1878.

Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby,, styled Mr Edward Stanley until 1886, then The Hon Edward Stanley and then Lord Stanley from 1893 to 1908, was a British soldier, Conservative politician, diplomat, and racehorse owner. He was twice Secretary of State for War and also served as British Ambassador to France.

Robert Bourke, 1st Baron Connemara British politician

Robert Bourke, 1st Baron Connemara, was a British Conservative politician and colonial administrator. He served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1874 and 1880 and 1885 and 1886, and was Governor of Madras between 1886 and 1890.

Julian Pauncefote, 1st Baron Pauncefote British diplomat

Julian Pauncefote, 1st Baron Pauncefote, known as Sir Julian Pauncefote between 1874 and 1899, was a British barrister, judge and diplomat. He was Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1882 and 1889 when he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, an office that was upgraded to that of Ambassador to the United States in 1893. Elevated to the peerage as Baron Pauncefote in 1899, he died in office in 1902.

First Gladstone ministry Government of the United Kingdom

The Conservative government under Benjamin Disraeli had been defeated at the 1868 general election, so in December 1868 the victorious William Ewart Gladstone formed his first government. He introduced reforms in the British Army, the legal system and the Civil Service, and disestablished the Church of Ireland. In foreign affairs he pursued a peaceful policy. His ministry was defeated in the 1874 election, whereupon Disraeli formed a ministry and Gladstone retired as Leader of the Liberal Party.

Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton British baron

Montagu William Lowry-Corry, 1st Baron Rowton,, also known as "Monty", was a British philanthropist and public servant, best known for serving as Benjamin Disraeli's private secretary from 1866 until the latter's death in 1881.

Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet Governor of South Australia (1869-1873), and New Zealand (1873-1874)

Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet was a British soldier, Conservative politician and colonial administrator.

Philip Henry Wodehouse Currie, 1st Baron Currie,, known as Sir Philip Currie between 1885 and 1899, was a British diplomat. He was Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1893 to 1898 and Ambassador to Italy from 1898 to 1902.

Lord Henry Lennox British politician

Lord Henry George Charles Gordon-Lennox PC, known as Lord Henry Lennox, was a British Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1846 to 1885 and was a close friend of Benjamin Disraeli.

Edmond Fitzmaurice, 1st Baron Fitzmaurice British politician

Edmond George Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1st Baron Fitzmaurice, PC, styled Lord Edmond FitzMaurice from 1863 to 1906, was a British Liberal politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1883 to 1885 and again from 1905 to 1908, when he entered the cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster under H. H. Asquith. However, illness forced him to resign the following year.

Baron Sanderson was a title created twice times in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came on 20 December 1905 when the civil servant Sir Thomas Sanderson was made Baron Sanderson, of Armthorpe in the County of York. He was Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1894 and 1896. Sanderson was the second son of Richard Sanderson, Conservative Member of Parliament for Colchester. The title became extinct on his death on 21 March 1923. The second creation came on 18 June 1930 when the noted academic Henry Sanderson Furniss was made Baron Sanderson, of Hunmanby in the County of York. The title became extinct on his death on 25 March 1939.

Robert Henry Meade British civil seervant

Sir Robert Henry Meade was a British civil servant and the Head of the Colonial Office between 1892 and 1897.

The National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations (NUCCA) was an organization set up by Benjamin Disraeli. It is considered to be a precursor to the modern Conservative Party conference. Unless otherwise stated, details of Chairmen and Presidents of the NUCCA are taken from British Historical Facts 1830-1900 by Chris Cook and Brendan Keith or from British Political Facts 1900-1994 by David Butler and Gareth Butler, as appropriate.

Sir Eric Barrington was a British civil servant who was principal private secretary to three Foreign Secretaries.


  1. SANDERSON, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2016 (online edition, Oxford University Press, 2014)
  2. Vincent, J. R. (1978) Disraeli, Derby and the Conservative Party: Journals and Memoirs of Edward Henry, Lord Stanley, 1849-1869 Hassocks, Harvester Pass p338
  3. "No. 27868". The London Gazette . 29 December 1905. p. 9320.
National Portrait Gallery, London Art museum in London

The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856. The gallery moved in 1896 to its current site at St Martin's Place, off Trafalgar Square, and adjoining the National Gallery. It has been expanded twice since then. The National Portrait Gallery also has regional outposts at Beningbrough Hall in Yorkshire and Montacute House in Somerset. It is unconnected to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh, with which its remit overlaps. The gallery is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Sir Philip Currie
Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Hardinge
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Sanderson