Thomas Savile, 1st Earl of Sussex

Last updated

Portrait of Thomas Savile Thomas Savile, 1st Earl of Sussex.jpg
Portrait of Thomas Savile

Thomas Savile, 1st Earl of Sussex (bap. 14 September 1590 c. 1659) was an English politician.

Contents

Biography

Thomas Savile was the son of John Savile, 1st Baron Savile of Pomfret, by his second wife, Elizabeth Carey, sister of Henry Cary, 1st Viscount Falkland, and daughter of Sir Edward Carey of Aldenham, Hertfordshire. He was baptized 14 September 1590 at Doddington Pigot, Lincolnshire. [1]

Henry Cary, 1st Viscount Falkland English politician and noble

Henry Cary, 1st Viscount Falkland PC was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1601 to 1622. He was created Viscount Falkland in the Scottish peerage in 1620. He was lord-deputy of Ireland from 1622 until 1629.

Lincolnshire County of England

Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards (18 m), England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.

Savile was elected to the House of Commons as member for Yorkshire in 1624. In the Parliament of 1624 he became an opponent of Thomas Wentworth, afterwards earl of Strafford—the rivalry between the Saviles and the Wentworths having long been a feature of the history of Yorkshire. Savile attached himself to the Duke of Buckingham and he was created Viscount Savile of Castlebar in the peerage of Ireland in 1628. On the death of his father two years later, he became the 2nd Baron Savile of Pomfret. [2]

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Yorkshire was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England from 1290, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Members of Parliament, traditionally known as Knights of the Shire, until 1826, when the county benefited from the disfranchisement of Grampound by taking an additional two members.

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford English earl and politician

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. He served in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles I. From 1632 to 1640 he was Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he established a strong authoritarian rule. Recalled to England, he became a leading advisor to the King, attempting to strengthen the royal position against Parliament. When Parliament condemned Wentworth to death, Charles reluctantly signed the death warrant and Wentworth was executed.

His growing enmity to Strafford led him into violent opposition to the government as the earl's power increased, and in 1640 he entered into correspondence with the Scots, to whom he sent a promise of support to which he forged the signatures of six peers. He was appointed Lord President of the Council of the North in succession to Strafford, but after Strafford's fall he went over to the Royalist party, in whose interest he exerted his influence in Yorkshire in a manner that brought upon him the displeasure of the parliament in 1642. His efforts to exonerate himself led to his being suspected by the Royalists, and to his arrest, while his residence, Howley Hall, was sacked by the Earl of Newcastle, the Royalist general. Having been pardoned by Charles, whom Savile attended at Oxford, he was created earl of Sussex in 1644; but his efforts to promote peace on terms distasteful to the king brought him again into disfavour, and in 1645 he was imprisoned and accused of high treason. Escaping from this charge on the ground of his privilege as a peer, he went to London and again ingratiated himself with the popular party. Intriguing simultaneously with both parties, he continued to play a double game with considerable skill, although he suffered imprisonment in 1645 for accusing Denzil Holles and Bulstrode Whitelocke of treachery in negotiations with the king, and was heavily fined. After this he retired into private life at Howley Hall, where he died about 1659. He was succeeded in the earldom of Sussex by his son James. [2]

Council of the North administrative body of the Kingdom of England

The Council of the North was an administrative body set up in 1472 by King Edward IV of England, the first Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England, to improve government control and economic prosperity, to benefit all of Northern England. Edward's brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester was its first Lord President.

Howley Hall Ruined country house in England

Howley Hall is a ruined Elizabethan country house in Batley, West Yorkshire, England. It has been designated a scheduled monument since 1997.

The privilege of peerage is the body of special privileges belonging to members of the British peerage. It is distinct from parliamentary privilege, which applies only to those peers serving in the House of Lords and the members of the House of Commons, while Parliament is in session and forty days before and after a Parliamentary session.

Marriages

Savile married firstly Frances Sondes (1592–c. 1634), the daughter of Thomas Sondes (1544–1593) of Throwley, Kent, by Margaret Brooke (1563–1621), the youngest daughter of William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham. Frances Sondes' first husband, Sir John Leveson, son and heir of Sir John Leveson, died of plague in December 1613, predeceasing his father and leaving two infant daughters, Christian and Frances. [3] [4] There were no issue of Savile's first marriage.

Throwley village in United Kingdom

Throwley is an English village south of Faversham in the Borough of Swale in Kent.The name is recorded in the Doomsday Book as Trevelai, which corresponds with a Brittonic origin, where "Trev" means a settlement or farm house and "Elai" typically relates to a fast moving river or stream.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham English noble and politician

Sir William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham, KG was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, and a Member of Parliament for Hythe. Although he was viewed by some as a religious radical during the Somerset Protectorate, he entertained Queen Elizabeth I of England at Cobham Hall in 1559, signalling his acceptance of the moderate regime.

Savile married secondly, shortly after November 1640, Anne Villiers, only daughter of Christopher Villiers, 1st Earl of Anglesey, by Elizabeth Sheldon, the daughter of Thomas Sheldon. [1]

Christopher Villiers, 1st Earl of Anglesey, known at court as Kit Villiers, was an English courtier, Gentleman of the Bedchamber and later Master of the Robes to King James I. In 1623 he was ennobled as Earl of Anglesey and Baron Villiers of Daventry.

Related Research Articles

Marquess of Rockingham

Marquess of Rockingham, in the County of Northampton, was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1746 for Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Earl of Malton. The Watson family descended from Lewis Watson, Member of Parliament for Lincoln. He was created a Baronet, of Rockingham Castle in the County of Northampton, in the Baronetage of England in 1621. In 1645 he was further honoured when he was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Rockingham. The third Baron served as Lord-Lieutenant of Kent. In 1714 he was created Baron Throwley, Viscount Sondes and Earl of Rockingham in the Peerage of Great Britain. His eldest son Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes, predeceased him and he was succeeded by his grandson, the second Earl. The second Earl was Lord-Lieutenant of Kent before his early death in 1745. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Thomas. He had previously represented Canterbury in Parliament. He died in 1746, whereupon the barony of Throwley, viscountcy and earldom became extinct.

William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford English Earl

William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford was a member of England's House of Lords

Earl of Sussex is a title that has been created several times in the Peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. The early Earls of Arundel were often also called Earls of Sussex.

Christopher Wandesford was an English administrator and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1621 and 1629. He was Lord Deputy of Ireland in the last months of his life.

Ulick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde Irish noble

Ulick MacRichard Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde, 5th Earl of Clanricarde, 2nd Earl of St Albans, was an Irish nobleman who was involved in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Lord Clanricarde was a Catholic Royalist, who had overall command of the Irish forces during the later stages of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. He was created Marquess of Clanricarde in 1646.

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Cleveland, was a Cavalier general who fought for Charles I during the English Civil War.

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (1672–1739) lived  (1672-1739)

Lieutenant-General Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, KG, known as Thomas Wentworth, 3rd Baron Raby from 1695 to 1711, was an English peer, diplomat and statesman who served as First Lord of the Admiralty.

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Lewis Watson, 1st Earl of Rockingham was an English peer and politician.

Henry Vane the Elder English politician

Sir Henry Vane, the elder was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1654. He served King Charles in many posts including secretary of state, but on the outbreak of the English Civil War joined the Parliamentary cause. He was the third cousin of Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland.

Sir George Sondes, 1st Earl of Feversham KB was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1626 and 1676 and was then created a peer and member of the House of Lords.

Frances Newton, Baroness Cobham was an English aristocratic woman who served Queen Elizabeth I of England as a Lady of the Bedchamber, and was one of her closest female friends. She was the second wife of William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham.

Sir Thomas Gower, 2nd Baronet was an English nobleman, politician, and knight. He was a member of the Leveson-Gower family. He twice served as High Sheriff of Yorkshire and supported the Royalist cause during the English Civil War.

John Savile, 1st Baron Savile of Pontefract (1556–1630) was an English politician; M.P. for Lincoln, 1586: sheriff of Lincolnshire, 1590; knight of the shire for Yorkshire, 1597, 1614, 1624, and 1626; custos rotulorum of West Riding of Yorkshire; ejected from office in 1615, but reappointed in 1626. privy councillor, comptroller of house hold 1627–1630, and created Baron Savile in 1627.

Thomas Belasyse, 1st Viscount Fauconberg, styled Baron Fauconberg between 1627 and 1643 and Sir Thomas Belasyse, 2nd Baronet between 1624 and 1627, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1597 and 1624 and was raised to the peerage in 1627. He was an ardent supporter of the Royalist cause in the English Civil War.

Sir William Savile, 3rd Baronet of Thornhill was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1642. He fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War and was killed in action.

Sir John Leveson was an English politician. He was instrumental in putting down the Essex rebellion of 8 February 1601.

The title Baron Cobham has been created numerous times in the Peerage of England; often multiple creations have been extant simultaneously, especially in the fourteenth century. The earliest creation was in 1313 for Henry de Cobham, who hailed from the county of Kent. The eleventh baron was attainted in 1603, but the peerage became abeyant instead of becoming extinct. In 1916, the attainder was removed and abeyance terminated in favor of the fifteenth baron. Note that the twelfth to fourteenth barons never actually held the title. This creation became abeyant again in 1951.

References

  1. 1 2 Cokayne, George Edward (1953). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part I. London: St Catherine Press. pp. 531–2.
  2. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sussex, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica . 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 163.
  3. McKeen, David (1986). A Memory of Honour; The Life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham. 2. Salzburg: Universitat Salzburg. pp. 424–9, 702, 752.
  4. Parishes: Throwley', The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 6 (1798), pp. 445-461 Retrieved 13 April 2013.
<i>Dictionary of National Biography</i> Multi-volume reference work

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.

Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Strafford
Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire
1641
Succeeded by
The Earl of Essex
Preceded by
The Earl of Strafford
Custos Rotulorum of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1641–1646
Vacant
English Civil War
Title next held by
The Lord Fairfax of Cameron
Preceded by
Sir Henry Vane
Treasurer of the Household
1641–1649
Vacant
English Commonwealth
Title next held by
Sir Frederick Cornwallis
Peerage of England
Preceded by
John Savile
Baron Savile of Pomfret
1630 c. 1659
Succeeded by
James Savile
New creation Earl of Sussex
1644 c. 1659
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Viscount Savile
1628 c. 1659
Succeeded by
James Savile