Sir Thomas Scawen (c. 1650 – 22 September 1730) was a British merchant, financier and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1708 and 1722. He was Governor of the Bank of England from 1721 to 1723.
The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England. It is nominally a civil service post, but the appointment tends to be from within the bank, with the incumbent grooming his or her successor. The Governor of the Bank of England is also Chairman of the Monetary Policy Committee, with a major role in guiding national economic and monetary policy, and is therefore one of the most important public officials in the United Kingdom.
Scawen was a younger son of Robert Scawen of Horton, Buckinghamshire and his wife Catherine Alsop, daughter of Cavendish Alsop merchant of London. He married Martha Wessell, the daughter of Abraham Wessell, a London merchant, on 8 September 1691.
Robert Scawen (1602–1670) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1670. He supported the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War.
Horton is a hamlet in the parish of Ivinghoe, in Buckinghamshire, England. It is in the civil parish of Slapton.
Like his brother William, Scawen was a successful London merchant. He was an Apprentice of the Fishmongers’ Company in 1671, a freeman in 1679, and a liveryman in 1685. In 1699 he was a member of the Russia Company. He was an assistant at the Fishmonger's Company in 1704 and was was a director of the Bank of England from 1705 to 1719. At the 1708 British general election he was returned unopposed as Whig Member of Parliament for Grampound. He was also Prime Warden of the Fishmongers’ Company from 1708 to 1710. In Parliament, he supported the naturalization of the Palatines in 1709, and voted for the impeachment of Dr Sacheverell in 1710. He did not stand at the 1710 British general election. On 29 January 1712, he was elected an alderman for Cornhill, London.He was knighted on 25 September 1714.
The Worshipful Company of Fishmongers is one of the 110 Livery Companies of the City of London, being an incorporated guild of sellers of fish and seafood in the City. The Company ranks fourth in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies, thereby making it one of the Great Twelve City Livery Companies.
The 1708 British general election was the first general election to be held after the Acts of Union had united the Parliaments of England and Scotland.
Grampound in Cornwall, was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1821. It was represented by two Members of Parliament.
At the 1715 British general election, Scawen was elected MP for City of London. From 1719, he was a Director of the Bank of England until 1721 when he became Governor of the Bank of England. In 1722 he inherited the manor of Horton from his brother William. The remainder of William's estates passed to Thomas's eldest son, also Thomas. From 1723 to his death, Scawen was a Deputy Governor.
The 1715 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 5th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. In October 1714, soon after George I had arrived in London after ascending to the throne, he dismissed the Tory cabinet and replaced it with one almost entirely composed of Whigs, as they were responsible for securing his succession. The election of 1715 saw the Whigs win an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons, and afterwards virtually all Tories in central or local government were purged, leading to a period of Whig ascendancy lasting almost fifty years during which Tories were almost entirely excluded from office.
Thomas Scawen was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1727 to 1741.
A Deputy Governor of the Bank of England is the holder of one of a small number of senior positions at the Bank of England, reporting directly to the Governor.
Scawen died on 22 September 1730 at Carshalton, and was buried at Horton, Buckinghamshire. He and his wife had five sons and four daughters. He left Horton to his eldest son, Thomas, who married a daughter of Hon. James Russell, and was the father of James Scawen, MP for Surrey. The remainder of his properties went to his younger sons. His daughter Catherine married Sir John Shelley, 4th Baronet and other daughters married John Trenchard and Sir Nathaniel Mead.
James Scawen (1734–1801) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1780.
Sir John Shelley 4th Baronet of Mitchelgrove, Sussex, was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1727 and 1747.
Sir William Withers of Fulham, Middlesex was an English Member of Parliament and Lord Mayor of London.
Charles Boone, of Rook's Nest, in Tandridge, and Godstone, Surrey, was an East India Company officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1727 and 1734. He was a British governor of the Bombay Presidency from 1715 to 1722.
Sir John Eyles, 2nd Baronet of Gidea Hall, Essex, was a British financier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1713 to 1734. He was Lord Mayor of London in 1726.
Sir John Williams was an English merchant and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1730 to 1734. He was Lord Mayor of London for the year 1735 to 1736.
Sir Nathaniel Gould was an English merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England from 1701 to 1707 and in the House of Commons of Great Britain between 1707 and 1728.
George Heathcote was an English merchant and philanthropist and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1727 to 1747. He was Lord Mayor of London in 1742.
Sir Edward Bromfield was an English merchant who was Lord Mayor of London in 1636.
Sir William Scawen was a British MP and Governor of the Bank of England.
Humphry Morice was a British merchant, MP and Governor of the Bank of England. He inherited his father's trading business around the age of eighteen, and learned finance and speculation from an uncle. Placed in Parliament through a cousin's interest in 1713, his Whig politics ultimately provoked a breach with his Tory cousin, and he had to be given another seat in 1722 by Robert Walpole's administration. He rose to be Deputy Governor and then Governor of the Bank of England in 1727, but unknown to his contemporaries, his fortune was largely fictitious and he was embezzling from the Bank and his daughters' trust fund. He died suddenly in 1731, perhaps having poisoned himself to forestall the discovery of his frauds, and left behind enormous debts.
Sir Rushout Cullen, 3rd Baronet (1661–1730), of Upton, Ratley, Warwickshire and Isleham, Cambridgeshire, was an English landowner and Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1697 and 1710.
Sir John Ward (c.1650–1726), of Hookfield, Clay Hill, Epsom, Surrey and St Laurence Pountney, London, was a British merchant, banker and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1701 and 1726. He was an original Governor of the Bank of England and served as Lord Mayor of London in 1718.
Sir James Bateman was an English merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1711 to 1718. He became Lord Mayor of London and Governor of the Bank of England.
John Rudge, of Mark Lane, London and Evesham Abbey, Worcestershire, was a London merchant and financier, and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons almost continuously between 1698 and 1734. He was a Governor of the Bank of England from 1713 to 1715.
Sir William Lewen (c.1657–1722), of Ewell, Surrey, was a British merchant and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1708 and 1722. He was Lord Mayor of London in 1717.
Sir Richard Hopkins of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, London was a British merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1724 to 1727.
Dudley North of Glemham Hall, Little Glemham, Suffolk was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1710 to 1730.
Thomas Ridge, of Portsmouth, Hampshire, was a British brewer, merchant and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1708 and 1727.
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Grampound |
With: James Craggs
Sir William Withers
Sir Richard Hoare
Sir George Newland
Sir John Cass
| Member of Parliament for the City of London |
With: Robert Heysham
Sir John Ward
Sir John Barnard
| Governor of the Bank of England |
Sir Gilbert Heathcote