|Born||1 January 1842|
Clandeboye, County Down, Ireland
|Died||4 March 1870 28) (aged|
Upper Fort Garry, Red River Colony, Rupert's Land
|Cause of death||Execution by firing squad|
|Occupation||Surveyor for Dawson Road Project, Soldier in the Hasting's Battalion of Rifles|
Thomas Scott (1 January 1842 – 4 March 1870) was an Irish Protestant who emigrated to Canada in 1863.While working as a labourer on the "Dawson Road Project", he moved on to Winnipeg where he met John Christian Schultz and fell under the influence of the Canadian Party. His political involvement in the Red River Settlement from then on led to his capture at Fort Garry where he was held hostage with others. On 4 March 1870 Scott was marched out of Fort Garry's east gate and was executed on the wall by the provisional government of the Red River Settlement led by Louis Riel.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America, approximately 110 kilometres (70 mi) north of the Canada–United States border.
Sir John Christian Schultz, was a Manitoba politician and businessman. He was a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1871 to 1882, a Senator from 1882 to 1888, and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba from 1888 to 1895.
The Canadian Party was a group founded by John Christian Schultz in 1869, in the Red River Colony. It was not a political party in the modern sense but was rather a forum for local ultra-Protestant agitators.
Scott's execution led to the Wolseley Expedition – a military force said to be sent to protect Canada from American annexation, but widely believed to confront Louis Riel and the Métis at the Red River Settlement, authorized by Sir John A. Macdonald. Thomas Scott's execution highlights a time of severe conflict between settlers and the Métis in Canadian history.Louis Riel's reason for killing Thomas Scott was that Thomas Scott was a racist man. His execution led to Riel's exile, and to Riel's own execution for treason in 1885.
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to both indigenous North Americans and European settlers. Originally the term applied to French-speaking mixed-race families, especially in the Red River area of what became Manitoba, Canada; in the late 19th century in Canada, those of mixed English descent were classified separately as Mixed Bloods.
Little is known of Thomas Scotts' early years. He was born in the Clandeboye area of County Down, in what is today Northern Ireland in 1842. Raised as a Presbyterian, he became an active Orangeman.Scott emigrated to Ontario in 1863. On his arrival at Red River, he worked as a labourer on the "Dawson Road" project, connecting the Red River and Lake Superior. He took part in a strike in 1869, for which he was fired and convicted of aggravated assault. Scott then moved to Winnipeg, where he met John Christian Schultz and became a supporter of the Canadian Party. Scott backed the annexation of the Red River Settlement to Canada, and the rest of his life revolved around this conflict. Scott had persecuted many Métis, or "Half Breeds", in Winnipeg, and his first town, Ottawa, with a mysterious man named Gnez Noel.
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, and County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest.
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in several areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland. It also has lodges in the Republic of Ireland, a Grand Orange Lodge in the Scottish Lowlands and other lodges throughout the Commonwealth, as well as in the United States and Togo. The Orange Order was founded in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict, as a Masonic-style fraternity sworn to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy. It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which was established in 1798. Its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant king William of Orange, who defeated the army of Catholic king James II in the Williamite–Jacobite War (1688–1691). Its members wear orange sashes and are referred to as Orangemen. The order is best known for its yearly marches, the biggest of which are held on or around 12 July.
Scott was employed by the Canadian government as a surveyor during the Red River Rebellion. He was first arrested and imprisoned in December 1869 at Upper Fort Garry by Louis Riel and his men while trying to attack the fort along with 34 other volunteers.Thomas Scott had briefly escaped Upper Fort Garry in January with John Christian Schultz and Charles Mair. In February 1870, Scott, alongside several volunteers amassed a rescue party outside John Christian Schultz's house in Kildonan that sought to free any remaining prisoners at Fort Garry. Summarily, the Métis released the prisoners and the rescue party was dispersed. Scott and several volunteers marched to Portage, but passed too close to Fort Garry, where Scott was captured and imprisoned by Riel's garrison once again. Charles Mair and John Christian Schultz travelled through America and later reached Ontario to urge the government for an extensive military expedition to the Red River Settlement. The joint-military operation of the Wolseley Expedition dispatched the Ontario 1st and 60th rifles alongside British troops in May 1870. It has been reported that Thomas Scott suffered severe diarrhea during his second incarceration, which was said to have had a negative effect on both Scott and his captors. During his captivity, Scott was an extraordinarily difficult, opinionated, and verbally abusive individualist who refused to acknowledge his captors' legal authority. There is some evidence that Thomas had an altercation with a group of guards that had brought him out and injured him so severely that Louis Riel had him locked into another cell with a stronger lock, partly for his own safety. It has also been documented that Scott's fellow prisoners had asked that he be removed due to his obnoxious behaviour while in captivity. He was eventually executed for committing insubordination following a trial.
The Red River Rebellion was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. For a period it had been a territory called Rupert's Land under control of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies. He led two rebellions against the government of Canada and its first post-Confederation prime minister, John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. Over the decades, he has been made a folk hero by Francophones, Catholic nationalists, native rights activists, and the New Left student movement. Arguably, Riel has received more scholarly attention than any other figure in Canadian history.
Charles Mair was a Canadian poet and journalist. He was a fervent Canadian nationalist noted for his participation in the Canada First movement and his opposition to Louis Riel during the two Riel Rebellions in western Canada.
While in jail, Scott became a nuisance as he caused trouble with the guards and made attempts at escaping. He was then brought in front of a court where they found him guilty of defying the authority of the Provisional Government, fighting with guards, and slandering the name of Louis Riel.Scott was not alone in being sentenced to death, but the other sentences were never carried out. On 4 March 1870, unlike the other members of his group, he faced the firing squad. His execution was watched by 100 bystanders. Many eyewitnesses disagree on multiple aspects of Scott's execution from disagreement on his last words and actions to the manner of his death. What is agreed upon is that he was shot while blindfolded by a firing squad against the east side gate of Upper Fort Garry. It was reported that Scott was kneeling in the snow praying fervently up until he was shot. Other witnesses reported that he had been yelling wildly that his execution was unjust and that his execution was murder. The weapons that were used by the firing squad were ordinary hunting weapons (supposedly muskets) and it was observed that the men who shot these guns were intoxicated. At the time of fire, the men in the firing squad stood 60 meters away from Scott. It was also debated whether or not Scott died immediately when shot by the firing squad.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded long gun that appeared as a smoothbore weapon in the early 16th century, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor. By the mid-16th century, this type of musket went out of use as heavy armor declined, but as the matchlock became standard, the term musket continued as the name given for any long gun with a flintlock, and then its successors, all the way through the mid-1800s. This style of musket was retired in the 19th century when rifled muskets became common as a result of cartridged breech-loading firearms introduced by Casimir Lefaucheux in 1835, the invention of the Minié ball by Claude-Étienne Minié in 1849, and the first reliable repeating rifle produced by Volcanic Repeating Arms in 1854. By the time that repeating rifles became common, they were known as simply "rifles", ending the era of the musket.
Métis leader John Bruce claimed that only two bullets from the firing squad actually hit Scott, wounding him once in the left shoulder, and once in the upper chest. A man came forward and discharged his pistol close to Scott's head, but the bullet only penetrated the upper part of the left cheek and came out somewhere near the cartilage of the nose. Still not dead, Scott was placed in a makeshift coffin, from which he was later reported to cry:
John Bruce was the first president of the Métis provisional government at the Red River Colony during the Red River Rebellion of 1869. He resigned because he was sick and his secretary, Louis Riel became the president.
John Bruce said that he was left there to die of his injuries.
A similar account was reported by Reverend George Young, who was told by Major George Robinson that Scott was confined to a roughly made coffin on the presumption that he had died when shot on by the firing squad. Robinson said that five hours later he and Riel entered the room where Scott's coffin was being kept and heard Scott beg for death. Robinson fled the room, Riel closed the door and, a few moments later, Robinson heard a shot and presumed that Scott was then dead. This account was cast into suspicion, though, as Riel had fired Robinson as the editor of New Nation on 19 March 1870, so it remains unclear whether or not these accounts are based in fact or acted to defame Riel in retaliation for Robinson's dismissal.
Upon Scott's death, Reverend George Young forwarded Thomas Scott's documents to his brother Hugh. These documents included Scott's commendatory letters and certificates of good character written by Presbyterian minister of whose church Scott had been connected to in Ireland. Additionally his life savings were sent to his brother. It has been suspected that because it was a such substantial amount ($103.50), that this money might have indicated an immoral lifestyle.
It is not known where Scott's body was laid to rest. In 1870, the supposed burial site of Thomas Scott was revisited by a party of men led by Reverend Young. The purpose of this expedition was to bring his body back to Ontario. The party found the reported site of his burial just outside the Hudson's Bay Company store, dug 6 feet down. There they discovered the fruit tree box that was meant to be Scott's coffin. The box was discovered partially open and measuring 5 feet, 8 inches in length. No body was found once the box was opened. The box contained only dirt and shavings of some sort. The length of the box has thrown into question whether Scott had ever been buried at that site. He was 6 feet, 2 inches tall and would not have fit into this makeshift coffin which had been said to have been nailed shut. Later, John Bruce claimed that Goblet, a man who had attended the actual funeral, had told him that a week after Scott's execution a hole had been cut in the ice of German Creek about a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the River La Seine. Scott's body was brought to this site and tied in heavy chains and then sunk into the water.Another theory is that his body was taken out of the coffin by a Fenian Winnipeger, the proprietor of the Red Saloon, under whose floor it was buried. Years later, when the site of the business was torn up for road construction, a skeleton was found. Some suggest that the skeleton belonged to Thomas Scott.
Though relatively unknown during his lifetime, once news of Scott's death made it to Ontario he was regarded as a martyr by the English-speaking, Protestant population.With opinions divided along ethnic lines during the century following Scott's death, English speaking historians have depicted the execution of Thomas Scott as the murder of an innocent victim. His execution was used to explain Louis Riel's fall from federally recognized politics. It was held that Riel could not be dealt with legitimately because he was seen as a murderer by Ontario. Additionally, the marginalization of Métis peoples in Canada was justified by the Anglo-Canadians' memory of a brutal murder dealt to one of their own (Thomas Scott).
By contrast, French Canadian speakers and sympathizers have emphasized Scott's problematic behaviour, as mentioned above.It was stated by historian Lyle Dick that the martyrdom of Scott created a "rallying symbol" for expansionists who wanted the armed force be sent to the Northwest. This fostered higher recruitment rates for the Red River Expedition and hastened its dispatch. Upon learning about Scott's death, the Canadian government dispatched the Wolseley Expedition to Fort Garry from Ontario to seize the fort and force Louis Riel, now branded a murderer, to flee the settlement. Scott's religious affiliation to the Orange Order had repercussions in Ontario as well. The Toronto Globe had published an article that stated, Scott was cruelly murdered by the enemies of the Queen, country and religion.
The Red River Settlement was reportedly affected by the execution of Thomas Scott as well. It was said that the Red River Settlement had adopted a new social atmosphere following Scott's execution of sullen hostility towards the leadership of Louis Riel.On 14 April 1870, Sir John A. Macdonald had written to the Earl of Carnarvon, that Thomas Scott's men were calling for retribution against Riel for the unjust murder of Thomas Scott. The Scott incident was known to intensify and complicate negotiations with the provisional Red River government and Ontario. Shortly after the death of Thomas Scott, the Manitoba Act was passed and the creation of the Canadian province of Manitoba had occ urred.
The Thomas Scott Memorial Orange Hall was constructed in 1902 and is located on Princess Street in Winnipeg. The hall was named in commemoration of Scott.
Thomas Scott and his execution is portrayed in sources by many historians controversially. As mentioned, there is plenty of speculation of his behavior in prison, the event of his execution and the way in which he died and was laid to rest. In Louis Riel (comics), Chester Brown portrays Scott as a nuisance. According to Brown, Scott was aggravating, insulting, and rude while imprisoned in Fort Garry.These qualities are supposedly what may have led to his execution. In the George Bloomfield directed movie, Riel (film), Thomas Scott's trial and execution is briefly portrayed. He is depicted as loud and uses offensive words such as "savage." He is only depicted in this way however, after he is convicted and led to his execution.
J. M. Bumsted, a specialist on the topic of the Red River Rebellion, also discusses many popular portrayals of Thomas Scott in his work, "Thomas Scott's Body: And Other Essays on Early Manitoba History." It is important to note that even Bumsted stresses that many stories may have been elaborated on.According to Bumsted, Louis Riel explains Scott's execution for two reasons. First, Scott's negative behavior and actions while in prison, as described by many other historians. Second, Scott is portrayed simply as a pawn being played in a bigger political game. Historians who expand on the behavioral issues claim that both the guards and other captors were aggravated by Scott's words and actions. He is said to have been threatening towards Riel and the guards and used constant obscene language. It is argued in some works that these behaviors are typical of captives who believe they are held unjustly, which Scott certainty believed. Also mentioned earlier, Scott is reported to have suffered diarrhea. It is commonly said by historians that this would have caused him aggravation, resulting in his negative behavior. The diarrhea combined with the annoying behavior however, is argued to have been reason to execute Scott as he was too much to deal with. Bumsted also discusses Scott's portrayal as a "ringleader" in a labour strike against Dawson Road superintendent John Snow, leading to justification for execution. Scott is also portrayed as a heavy drinker and a "barroom brawler." Contradictory, Scott is also portrayed in some works as being quiet and inoffensive, just powerful and determined. His execution in these stories is portrayed as being a factor of a personal animosity between him and Riel. This animosity is depicted in many different versions ranging from Scott offending Riel by telling him to move out of his way on the street, to a rivalry over love for the same women. This version has Scott rescuing a Metisse named Marie from a flood. Scott subsequently protected Marie from Riel and his "clumsy" courtship of her. This led to a hatred of Scott by Riel, causing him to want him executed.
According to Bumsted, the only thing commonly agreed throughout these depictions is that Scott's execution was a political mistake by Louis Riel and the Metis.
The North-West Rebellion of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the government of Canada. Many Métis felt Canada was not protecting their rights, their land and their survival as a distinct people. Riel had been invited to lead the movement of protest. He turned it into a military action with a heavily religious tone. This alienated Catholic clergy, whites, most Indigenous tribes and some Métis. But he had the allegiance of a couple hundred armed Métis, a smaller number of other Indigenous warriors and at least one white man at Batoche in May 1885, confronting 900 Canadian militia plus some armed local residents. About 91 people would die in the fighting that occurred that spring, before the rebellion's collapse.
The Red River Colony was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk on 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) of land. This land was granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company, which is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. The establishment of Canada in the late 19th century led to the creation of what is today Manitoba, although much of its original territory is now part of the United States.
The Manitoba Act, or simply the Act, is an act of the Parliament of Canada that is defined by the Constitution Act, 1982 as forming a part of the Constitution of Canada. The Manitoba Act received royal assent on May 12, 1870. It created the province of Manitoba and continued to enforce An Act for the Temporary Government of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territories when united with Canada upon the absorption of the British territories of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory into Canada on July 15, 1870. The Manitoba Act was created by the Parliament of Canada in response to the Métis' concerns about the provisional government. The Manitoba Act was created with hopes to decrease tension between the Canadian Parliament and the Red River Métis. Many negotiations and uprisings came with this Act, some of which are still not settled today.
The Wolseley expedition was a military force authorized by Sir John A. Macdonald to confront Louis Riel and the Métis in 1870, during the Red River Rebellion, at the Red River Colony in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. The expedition was also intended to counter American expansionist sentiments in northern border states. Leaving Toronto on in May 1870, the expedition arrived at Fort Garry on August 24, 1870. After a journey of three months in arduous conditions, the Expedition arrived at, and captured, Fort Garry. This extinguished Riel's Provisional Government, and eradicated the threat of the American expansion into western Canada.
William Mactavish was a Scottish-born Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) clerk, accountant, and chief trader. Mainly known for his dual-position as Governor of Assiniboia, and Governor of Rupert's Land, Mactavish played a major role in the development of Western Canada. Often referred to as, "The Last Governor of Assiniboia," Mactavish is frequently criticized for his role in the Red River Rebellion.
Louis Riel is a historical biography in comics by Canadian cartoonist Chester Brown, published as a book in 2003 after serializion in 1999–2003. The story deals with Métis rebel leader Louis Riel's antagonistic relationship with the newly established Canadian government. It begins shortly before the 1869 Red River Rebellion, and ends with Riel's 1885 hanging for high treason. The book explores Riel's possible schizophrenia—he believed God had named him Prophet of the New World, destined to lead the Métis people to freedom.
Thomas Eugene "Tom" Flanagan, is an American-born author, conservative political activist, and former political science professor at the University of Calgary. Flanagan has been on "research and scholarship leave" from the University of Calgary since January 2013. He also served as an advisor to Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper until 2004. Flanagan has focused on challenging Native and Métis rights. In connection with his multi-year research and publications on Louis Riel, Flanagan published a reinterpretation of the North-West Rebellion, defending the federal government's response to Métis land claims. He began publishing works on Louis Riel in the 1970s, which evolved into a multi-year 'Louis Riel Project' that he coordinated. During the 2012 provincial elections he served as the campaign manager of the Wildrose Party, an Alberta libertarian/conservative provincial party. As an offshoot of his political activism, Flanagan began to write as a columnist in 1997, publishing in media such as The Globe and Mail, National Post, Calgary Herald, Ottawa Citizen, Maclean's, and Time. He has regularly made appearances on Canadian television and radio as a commentator.
St. Norbert is a bilingual neighbourhood in the southernmost part of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. While outside the Perimeter Highway,, it is still part of the city. The population is just over 5,000. Each summer, the community is home to the St. Norbert Farmers' Market, drawing large crowds from Winnipeg and the surrounding area. Other attractions include the St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park, and the St. Norbert Arts and Cultural Centre. St. Norbert is the closest community to the Red River Floodway gates.
Pierre Delorme was a Métis fur trader, businessman, farmer and political figure. He represented Provencher in the House of Commons of Canada during the 1st Canadian Parliament as a Conservative member from 1871 to 1872. He also represented St. Norbert South in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1870 to 1874 and St. Norbert from 1878 to 1879.
Fort Ellice was a Hudson's Bay Company trading post established on the Qu’Appelle River upstream from the fork with the Assiniboine River in 1794. In 1817 it was rebuilt on the south bank of the Assiniboine at Beaver Creek. In 1862 a new post was constructed a short distance from the original fort and in 1873 it replaced Fort Pelly as the headquarters for the Swan River District. It closed in 1892. Many famous Metis traders were in charge of this post, namely, John Richard McKay, James McKay and William McKay Sr. The fort was located in what is now west-central Manitoba, Canada, just east of that province's border with Saskatchewan.
Sir Joseph Dubuc, was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and judge who was born in Lower Canada and became an important political figure from Manitoba.
Thomas Scott was a Canadian military figure, Manitoba Member of the Legislative Assembly, Member of Parliament and the third Mayor of Winnipeg in the 19th century.
Elzéar Goulet was a Métis leader in the Red River Colony, which later became the province of Manitoba, Canada. He was a supporter of Louis Riel's provisional government and was murdered by Canadian troops under the command of Col. Garnet Wolseley, after the suppression of the Red River Resistance.
Ambroise-Dydime Lépine was a military leader of the Métis under the command of Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870. Lepine led the armed party that ordered Lieutenant Governor designate William McDougall back across the US border in late 1869. He was prominent in the surrenders of Schultz and the Canadian Party in 1869 and the surrender of Boulton and the "Portage gang" in 1870. He was tried and sentenced to death for his role in the resistance regarding the execution of Thomas Scott, but his sentence was commuted to five years exile by the Governor General of Canada.
George Klyne was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba (1871–74). Metis politician Georges Kline was first a member the Convention of Forty in 1870 representing Pointe a Grouette and then became one of the first elected MLA's in Manitoba representing the riding of Ste. Agathe. George was also a member of the Southesk Expedition in 1859.
Riel House is a National Historic Site commemorating the life of the Métis politician and activist Louis Riel, and also the daily life of Métis families in the Red River Settlement. The house is situated in the historic St. Vital parish, Winnipeg in Manitoba Canada. From 1865, the residence belonged to Riel's mother, Julie Riel (Lagimodière), and housed his brothers and their families. Louis Riel lived along with them from his return to Red River in 1868, through the Red River Resistance, until his exile in 1870. It is also where his body lay in state for two days in December 1885 after his sentencing and execution for murder and treason, before being buried in St. Boniface. The house remained within the possession of Riel descendants until 1968, when it was acquired by the Winnipeg Historical Society.
Henry Prince, born Pa-bat-or-kok-or-sis or Mis-koo-kenew was a Saulteaux Indian chief of the Peguis First Nation.