|Thomas Seller Wallace|
Banffshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
|Died||8 October 1935 (age 39)|
Banff, Alberta, Canada
|Buried||Union Cemetery, Calgary, Alberta|
Alberta Provincial Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
|Years of service||1914-1918 British Army|
1921-1932 Alberta Provincial Police
1932-1935 Royal Canadian Mounted Police
|Unit||1/6 Battalion, Gordon Highlanders|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
Thomas Seller Wallace, MM (1896 – October 8, 1935) was a British-born Canadian police officer who was killed in the 1935 Royal Canadian Mounted Police Killings. On 8 October 1935, Wallace was shot in the chest by one of the fugitives in the incident on the outskirts of Banff, Alberta, succumbing to his wounds later that day. He had previously earned a distinguished service record in the British Army during World War I. He emigrated to Canada and joined the Alberta Provincial Police after the war in 1921, before it was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police by 1932 and had been a law enforcement officer in Alberta for 14 years before his death.
The Military Medal (MM) was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other arms of the armed forces, and to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land. The award was established in 1916, with retrospective application to 1914, and was awarded to other ranks for "acts of gallantry and devotion to duty under fire". The award was discontinued in 1993 when it was replaced by the Military Cross, which was extended to all ranks, while other Commonwealth nations instituted their own award systems in the post war period.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian.
Wallace was born in Banffshire, Scotland and enlisted in the British Army prior to the First World War. Assigned to the 1/6 Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, he saw action in the initial campaigns of the war including the Battle of Mons as an "old contemptible" of the British Expeditionary Force. He was awarded a Military Medal for his distinguished service as a sniper and left the army as a Serjeant.
Banffshire is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
The Gordon Highlanders was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed for 113 years, from 1881 until 1994, when it was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Highlanders to form the Highlanders.
After the First World War, Thomas emigrated to Canada and joined the Alberta Provincial Police in 1921. The force itself was relatively new after having been formed in 1917 to replace the paramilitary Northwest Mounted Police which had just relinquished policing duties in Alberta.He was posted across Alberta throughout his career with the APP was noted as an effective policeman winning the Byron Trophy for being the best shot with a revolver in the entire force.
The Alberta Provincial Police was a police force active in Alberta, Canada, between 1917 and 1932.
The force was amalgamated with the RCMP in 1932 as a cost-cutting measure during the Great Depression. At the time of the amalgamation, Wallace was an APP Sergeant serving as a drill instructor stationed in Lethbridge. He was allowed retained his rank in the newly formed Alberta detachment of the RCMP after additional training in Regina.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.
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On 7 October 1935, Wallace had been dispatched with fellow British born RCMP officer Constable George "Scotty" Harrison while in dressed in plain clothed. They were to assist with the capture of three fugitive Doukhobors identified as John Kalmakoff, Joseph Posnikoff, and Peter Woiken. They had been suspected of killing Constable William Wainwright of the Benito police force and RCMP Constable John Shaw. They joined with uniformed RCMP officers G.E Combes and Gray Campbell in an unmarked police vehicle.
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title.
Benito is an unincorporated rural community in the Municipality of Swan Valley West within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held village status prior to January 1, 2015. The community is situated in the Swan River Valley, 37 kilometres southwest of Swan River, 475 kilometres northwest of Winnipeg, and 2 kilometres east of the Saskatchewan border. To the south is Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest, to the north is Thunder Hill and further north of Swan River is Porcupine Mountain Provincial Park. Benito is served by PTH 83.
On 8 October, the perpetrators had robbed a vehicle driven by C.T Scott. Scott had his money and wristwatch stolen by the disoriented fugitives. They bizarrely informed him that they would return his wristwatch if he did not inform the police and continued to follow his vehicle westward as it drove towards Banff. As the two vehicles arrived in Banff, Scott stopped his vehicle before an RCMP checkpoint near the eastern gate of Banff National Park and informed the uniformed Campbell that the men in the vehicle following him had just robbed him.
Banff is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located in Alberta's Rockies along the Trans-Canada Highway, approximately 126 km (78 mi) west of Calgary and 58 km (36 mi) east of Lake Louise. At 1,400 to 1,630 m above sea level, Banff is the community with the second highest elevation in Alberta, after Lake Louise.
Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885. Located in the Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres (68–112 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi) of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley.
As Wallace and Harrison approached the vehicle, two shots through the windshield were fired by its occupants, hitting both officers. The officers continued to engage the fugitives but had been mortally wounded. Harrison had been shot in the neck, and managed to shoot out the headlights of the vehicle before losing consciousness. Wallace fired his service revolver until he was low on ammunition and collapsed from his wounds.Combes was able to shoot Woiken, killing him instantly while the remaining two perpatrators were tracked down by a combined force of RCMP officers and enraged civilians. Kalmakoff and Posnikoff were both and ultimately shot and morally wounded by civilian William Neish.
Wallace was transported to Calgary for medical attention after the shooting where he died of his wounds, with his wife Helen at his side. His partner Harrison also died of his wounds on the same day. At the time of his death, Wallace had been a police officer for 14 years in Alberta. His long years of service were recognized in his massive funeral procession led by the Calgary Highlanders' Pipes and Drums band. He was buried with full masonic and military honours at Calgary's Union Cemetery.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level. It also provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, and three international airports. The RCMP does not provide provincial or municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec.
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The 1935 Royal Canadian Mounted Police Killings were a series of murders of three Royal Canadian Mounted Police and one local constable from 5–8 October 1935. They began with the murders of Benito Constable William Wainwright and RCMP Constable John Shaw near Pelly, Saskatchewan by three Doukhobor men who had been in the custody of the officers. This led to a shootout which killed two additional RCMP officers in Banff, Alberta and the death of perpetrator Joseph Posnikoff. The remaining two perpetrators were gunned down by civilian William Neish, as they were pursued by a combined posse of RCMP officers and armed civilian volunteers.
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