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Dr. Thomas Sewall (April 16, 1786 – April 10, 1845) was an American doctor, writer and academic. He gained notoriety for being convicted of body snatching, and later went on to become a professor.
Body snatching is the secret removal of corpses from burial sites. A common purpose of body snatching, especially in the 19th century, was to sell the corpses for dissection or anatomy lectures in medical schools. Those who practised body snatching were often called "resurrectionists" or "resurrection-men". A related act is grave robbery, uncovering a tomb or crypt to steal artifacts or personal effects that had been buried with the deceased; however, grave robbery differs from body snatching in that grave robbing does not involve stealing the corpse itself.
Sewall was born in Hallowell, Maine. In August 1812, he graduated from Harvard Medical School and began practicing medicine. In 1819, he was arrested, charged, and found guilty of multiple counts of body snatching in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Forced to leave the state, he moved to Washington to re-establish his career. In 1825 he became a founding faculty member of the medical department at Columbian College (which later became George Washington University), where he became professor of anatomy.
Hallowell is a city in Kennebec County, Maine, United States. The population was 2,381 at the 2010 census. Popular with tourists, Hallowell is noted for its culture and old architecture. Hallowell is included in the Augusta, Maine micropolitan New England City and Town Area.
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1782, HMS is one of the oldest medical schools in the United States and is consistently ranked 1st among research-oriented medical schools by U.S. News and World Report. Unlike most other leading medical schools, HMS does not operate in conjunction with a single hospital but is directly affiliated with several teaching hospitals in the Boston area. The HMS faculty comprises of approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty members consisting of assistant, associate, and full professors, and over 5,000 full- and part-time, non-voting instructors. The majority of the faculty receive their appointments through an affiliated teaching hospital.
Ipswich is a coastal town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 13,175 at the 2010 census. Home to Willowdale State Forest and Sandy Point State Reservation, Ipswich includes the southern part of Plum Island (Massachusetts). A residential community with a vibrant tourism industry, the town is famous for its clams, celebrated annually at the Ipswich Chowderfest, and for Crane Beach, a barrier beach near the Crane estate. Ipswich was incorporated as a town in 1634.
Sewell is remembered today for his eight graphic drawings of "alcohol diseased stomachs." Colored lithographs of these were made and widely distributed to promote teetotalism and the temperance movement. He was also an opponent of phrenology, the pseudo-science of studying the size and shape of peoples' heads.
Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages. A person who practices teetotalism is called a teetotaler or is simply said to be teetotal. The teetotalism movement was first started in Preston, England, in the early 19th century. The Preston Temperance Society was founded in 1833 by Joseph Livesey, who was to become a leader of the temperance movement and the author of The Pledge: "We agree to abstain from all liquors of an intoxicating quality whether ale, porter, wine or ardent spirits, except as medicine."
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement typically criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence (teetotalism), with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health, personality, and family life. Typically the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those completely prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries, particularly English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, and it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933.
Phrenology is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits. It is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. Although both of those ideas have a basis in reality, phrenology extrapolated beyond empirical knowledge in a way that departed from science. The central phrenological notion that measuring the contour of the skull can predict personality traits is discredited by empirical research. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was influential in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840. The principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820.
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, and is a part of Greater Boston. Brookline borders six of Boston's neighborhoods: Brighton, Allston, Fenway–Kenmore, Mission Hill, Jamaica Plain, and West Roxbury. The city of Newton lies to the west of Brookline.
Ferid Murad is an American physician and pharmacologist, and a co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Samuel Sewall was a judge, businessman, and printer in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized, and his essay The Selling of Joseph (1700), which criticized slavery. He served for many years as the chief justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature, the province's high court.
Charles Knowlton was an American physician, atheist, and writer.
Sewall Green Wright was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis. He was a founder of population genetics alongside Ronald Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane, which was a major step in the development of the modern synthesis combining genetics with evolution. He discovered the inbreeding coefficient and methods of computing it in pedigree animals. He extended this work to populations, computing the amount of inbreeding between members of populations as a result of random genetic drift, and along with Fisher he pioneered methods for computing the distribution of gene frequencies among populations as a result of the interaction of natural selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift. Wright also made major contributions to mammalian and biochemical genetics.
Samuel Sewall was an American lawyer and congressman. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
Arthur Wesley Dow was an American painter, printmaker, photographer and influential arts educator.
Jonathan Sewall was the last British attorney general of Massachusetts.
Herbert Benson, is an American medical doctor, cardiologist, and founder of the Mind/Body Medical Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston. He is a professor of mind/body medicine at Harvard Medical School and director emeritus of the Benson-Henry Institute (BHI) at MGH. He is a founding trustee of The American Institute of Stress. He has contributed more than 190 scientific publications and 12 books. More than five million copies of his books have been printed in different languages.
John Saffin was a colonial New England merchant, politician, judge, and poet. He is best known for his A Brief and Candid Answer to Samuel Sewall's The Selling of Joseph, and for a small collection of poetry, most of which was not published until the 20th century. Literary historian Harrison Meserole ranks Saffin as "seventh or eighth" among colonial-era poets.
Frederick Spaulding Coolidge was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts and the father of United States Senator Marcus Aurelius Coolidge.
Augustine Heard was an American entrepreneur, businessman and trader, and founder of the Augustine Heard & Co. firm in China.
Frank Burr Mallory (1862–1941) was an American pathologist at the Boston City Hospital and Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School, after whom the Mallory body is named.
David Sewall was a Massachusetts attorney and judge.
Joseph Sewall was an American politician and businessperson. He served four terms as President of the Maine Senate (1975–1982), which made him at that time the longest serving Senate President in Maine history.
George Popham Sewall was an American lawyer and member of the Maine House of Representatives from Old Town, Maine. Sewall was born in Georgetown, Maine the son of Joseph and Hannah Shaw Sewall.
Edward Khantzian is a professor of psychiatry, part time at Harvard Medical School. He is the originator of the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse, which states that individuals use drugs in an attempt to self-medicate states of distress and suffering. Dr. Khantzian is a first generation Armenian-American born in Haverhill Massachusetts. His parents were born in Turkey, his father coming to this country in 1912 and his mother enduring a more potentially devastating experience of living through the Armenian genocide that started in 1915. Despite that tragic era, including the forced marches, she survived and joined with her husband to come to the United States in the late 1920s. Edward was born in 1935 and grew up in Haverhill, a shoe town, where both parents worked in the then flourishing shoe industry. Educated in local school systems, he began his advanced studies in the Evening Divisions of Merrimack College and Boston University, graduating from the latter in 1958. After working as a technical writer for Raytheon for one year, he commenced his medical training at Albany Medical College and graduated in 1963 followed by an Internship at Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island. Subsequently he commenced his training in psychiatry at the Harvard Massachusetts Mental Health Mental Center. Completing his training in Psychiatry he was one of the founders of the then newest Harvard Department of Psychiatry at The Cambridge Hospital with which he has been affiliated most of his career. He completed psychoanalytic training at the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute in 1973. Starting early in his career he became involved in multiple clinical and investigative studies of addiction, with an emphasis on pursuing a psychodynamic understanding of the psychological vulnerabilities that predispose to addictive disorders. Considered a pioneer in addiction studies and treatment by many, he has gained world-wide recognition for originating the self-medication hypothesis and developing modified psychodynamic individual and group treatments for drug-alcohol dependent individuals, as well as exploring and explaining how and why 12-step programs are effective. He is a founding member and past-president of the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, the founding member and chair of the Committee for Alcoholism and Addiction for the Group for Advancement of Psychiatry, and is a founding member and immediate Past President and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Massachusetts Medical Society’s affiliated program, Physician Health Services, Inc. In 2016 the Massachusetts Psychiatric Society honored him by conferring him with the Lifetime Achievement Award.
Joseph Nash McDowell (1805-1868) was one of the most influential and respected doctors west of the Mississippi in the 1840s until his death in 1868. He is primarily remembered for his grave-digging practices, where he illegally exhumed corpses in order to study human anatomy. He is also known for his influence on Mark Twain, and was likely the inspiration for Twain's fictional character Dr. Robinson in "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer."
Samuel Edmund Sewall (1799-1888) was an American lawyer, abolitionist, and suffragist. He was one of the founders of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in 1831, lent his legal expertise to the Underground Railroad, and served a term in the Massachusetts Senate as a Free-Soiler.