Thomas Sherlock

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Thomas Sherlock
Bishop of London
Thomas Sherlock portrait.jpg
Church Church of England
Diocese London
Elected1748
Term ended1761 (death)
Predecessor Edmund Gibson
Successor Thomas Hayter
Other posts Bishop of Salisbury
1734–1748
Bishop of Bangor
1728–1734
Orders
Consecrationc. 1728
Personal details
Born1678
London
Died(1761-07-18)18 July 1761
Buried All Saints Church, Fulham, Middlesex
Nationality British
Denomination Anglican
Parents William Sherlock
Profession Academic
Alma mater St Catharine's College, Cambridge (MA, DD)

Thomas Sherlock (1678 – 18 July 1761) PC was a British divine who served as a Church of England bishop for 33 years. He is also noted in church history as an important contributor to Christian apologetics.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

British people citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, and their descendants

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

Church of England Anglican state church of England

The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

Contents

Life

Born in London, he was the son of the Very Revd William Sherlock, Dean of St Paul's. He was educated at Eton College and St Catharine's College, Cambridge. [1] In 1704 he succeeded his father as Master of the Temple, where he was very popular.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

William Sherlock English church leader

William Sherlock was an English church leader.

Dean of St Pauls

The Dean of St Paul's is a member of, and chairman of the Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral in London in the Church of England. The Dean of St Paul's is also Dean of the Order of the British Empire.

Sherlock died in 1761 and is buried in the churchyard of All Saints Church, Fulham, Middlesex.

All Saints Church, Fulham Church

All Saints' Church is the ancient parish church of Fulham, in the County of Middlesex, pre-dating the Reformation. It is now an Anglican Church in Fulham, London, sited close to the river Thames, beside the northern approach to Putney Bridge. The church tower and interior nave and chancel are Grade II* listed.

Career

In 1714 he became master of his old college at Cambridge and later the university's vice-chancellor, whose privileges he defended against Richard Bentley. In 1715, he was appointed Dean of Chichester.

A Master is the head or senior member of a college within a collegiate university, principally in the United Kingdom. The actual title of the head of a college varies widely between institutions.

St Catharines College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

St Catharine's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1473 as Katharine Hall, it adopted its current name in 1860. The college is nicknamed "Catz". The college is located in the historic city-centre of Cambridge, and lies just south of King's College and across the street from Corpus Christi College. The college is notable for its open court that faces towards Trumpington Street.

University of Cambridge University in Cambridge, United Kingdom

The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

He took a prominent part in the Bangorian controversy against Benjamin Hoadly. Sherlock became Bishop of Bangor in 1728; he was afterwards translated to Salisbury in 1734, where he was ex officio Chancellor of the Order of the Garter and then to London in 1748, when he was sworn of the Privy Council. Sherlock was a capable administrator and cultivated friendly relations with Dissenters. In Parliament he gave good service to his old schoolfellow, Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Benjamin Hoadly British bishop

Benjamin Hoadly was an English clergyman, who was successively Bishop of Bangor, of Hereford, of Salisbury, and finally of Winchester. He is best known as the initiator of the Bangorian Controversy.

Bishop of Bangor Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Bangor

The Bishop of Bangor is the ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Bangor. The see is based in the city of Bangor where the bishop's seat (cathedra) is at Cathedral Church of Saint Deiniol.

Diocese of Salisbury Church of England diocese in the south of England

The Diocese of Salisbury is a Church of England diocese in the south of England, within the ecclesiastical Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers most of Dorset, and most of Wiltshire. The diocese is led by the Bishop of Salisbury and the diocesan synod. The bishop's seat is at Salisbury Cathedral.

Writings

Sherlock's tomb monument at All Saints' Church, Fulham ThomasSherlockMonument01.jpg
Sherlock's tomb monument at All Saints' Church, Fulham

He published against Anthony Collins's deistic Grounds of the Christian Religion a volume of sermons entitled The Use and Intent of Prophecy in the Several Ages of the World (1725); and in reply to Thomas Woolston's Discourses on the Miracles he wrote a volume entitled The Tryal of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus (1729), which soon ran through fourteen editions. His Pastoral Letter (1750) on the late earthquakes had a circulation of many thousands, and four or five volumes of Sermons which he published in his later years (1754–1758) were also at one time highly esteemed. Jane Austen, wrote to her niece Anna in 1814, ‘I am very fond of Sherlock’s Sermons, prefer them to almost any’. [2]

Anthony Collins English philosopher

Anthony Collins was an English philosopher, and a proponent of deism.

Deism is the philosophical belief which posits that although God exists as the uncaused First Cause – ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe – God does not interact directly with that subsequently created world. Equivalently, deism can also be defined as the view which asserts God's existence as the cause of all things, and admits its perfection but rejects divine revelation or direct intervention of God in the universe by miracles. It also rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator or absolute principle of the universe.

Thomas Woolston was an English theologian. Although he was often classed as a deist, his biographer William H. Trapnell regards him as an Anglican who held unorthodox theological views.

A collected edition of his works, with a memoir, in five volumes, by Thomas Smart Hughes, appeared in 1830.

Sherlock's Tryal of the Witnesses is generally understood by scholars such as Edward Carpenter, Colin Brown and William Lane Craig, to be a work that the Scottish philosopher David Hume probably had read and to which Hume offered a counter viewpoint in his empiricist arguments against the possibility of miracles.

Bishop Sherlock also wrote a highly respected work entitled A Discourse Concerning the Divine Providence in which he argues that the Sovereignty and Providence of God are unimpeachable.

Apologetics

Since the Deist controversy Sherlock's argument for the evidences of the resurrection of Jesus Christ has continued to interest later Christian apologists such as William Lane Craig and John Warwick Montgomery. His place in the history of apologetics has been classified by Ross Clifford as belonging to the legal or juridical school of Christian apologetics.

Notes

  1. "Sherlock, Thomas (SHRK693T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. Ross, Josephine. Jane Austen: A Companion, ch. 4, Thistle Publishing. Kindle Edition.

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References

Further reading

Academic offices
Preceded by
Thomas Green
Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1714–1715
Succeeded by
Daniel Waterland
Preceded by
William Dawes
Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge
1714–1719
Succeeded by
Thomas Crosse
Church of England titles
Preceded by
William Baker
Bishop of Bangor
1728–1734
Succeeded by
Charles Cecil
Preceded by
Benjamin Hoadly
Bishop of Salisbury
1734–1748
Succeeded by
John Gilbert
Preceded by
Edmund Gibson
Bishop of London
1748–1761
Succeeded by
Thomas Hayter