Thomas Smart Hughes

Last updated

Thomas Smart Hughes (1786–1847) was an English cleric, theologian and historian.



Born at Nuneaton, Warwickshire, on 25 August 1786, he was the eldest surviving son of Hugh Hughes, curate of Nuneaton, and rector of Hardwick, Northamptonshire. He received his early education from John Spencer Cobbold, first at Nuneaton grammar school, and later as a private pupil at Wilby, Suffolk. In 1801 he was sent to Shrewsbury School, then under the head-mastership of Samuel Butler, and in October 1803 entered as a pensioner of St John's College, Cambridge. His university career was distinguished. Besides college prizes he gained the Browne medals for a Latin ode Mors Nelsoni, in 1806, and for the Greek ode In Obitum Gulielmi Pitt in 1807. He graduated B.A. in 1809 as fourteenth senior optime, and proceeded M.A. in 1811 and B.D. in 1818. [1]

Hughes was appointed in 1809 to an assistant-mastership at Harrow, under George Butler, but returned to Cambridge in 1811. In the same year he was elected to a foundation fellowship at St John's, and in December 1812 accepted the post of travelling tutor to Robert Townley Parker of Cuerden Hall, Lancashire. During a tour of about two years he visited Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, and Albania. In September 1815 he was ordained deacon. He was appointed assistant-tutor at his college, but immediately resigned and accepted a fellowship and tutorship at Trinity Hall. In 1817 he accepted a fellowship at Emmanuel College and was elected junior proctor.

In 1819 he was appointed by Herbert Marsh, bishop of Peterborough, as his domestic and examining chaplain. He remained at Emmanuel, where he became dean and Greek lecturer. At Christmas 1822 he was appointed Christian advocate. On his marriage in April 1823 he became curate at Chesterton, but two years later returned to Cambridge, where he lived until about a year before his death, mostly writing, though some clerical duties. He was one of the first examiners for the new classical tripos of 1824, and again in 1826 and 1828. On 26 February 1827 he was collated by Bishop Marsh to a prebendal stall at Peterborough Cathedral In the same year he was an unsuccessful candidate for the head-mastership of Rugby School.

In 1832 Hughes was presented by the dean and chapter of Peterborough to the rectory of Fiskerton, Lincolnshire, and in the same year succeeded to the family living of Hardwick. In May 1846 he was presented to the perpetual curacy of Edgware, Middlesex, by John Lee.

John Martin, Belshazzar's Feast (1820). Martin gave an account of how an argument with Washington Allston on how to treat the biblical subject led him to read Hughes's poem on the same topic; and how he proceeded to paint it in line with their common vision, despite opposition from Charles Robert Leslie. John Martin - Belshazzar's Feast - Google Art Project.jpg
John Martin, Belshazzar's Feast (1820). Martin gave an account of how an argument with Washington Allston on how to treat the biblical subject led him to read Hughes's poem on the same topic; and how he proceeded to paint it in line with their common vision, despite opposition from Charles Robert Leslie.

Hughes died on 11 August 1847.


Hughes obtained Latin essay prizes in 1809 and 1810: the second essay, a discussion of the merits of Cicero and Lord Clarendon, was printed in vol. xvii. of the Classical Journal , 1818. He won the Seatonian prize for 1817 with a poem on Belshazzar's Feast; these verses inspired John Martin's painting on the subject. After his journey to Italy and Greece, he wrote Travels in Sicily, Greece, and Albania, 2 vols. 1820, [3] which saw a second edition, partly enlarged and partly abridged, 2 vols., 1830. [4] The first edition was translated into French by the author: Voyage à Janina en Albanie, par la Sicile et la Grèce, 2 vols., 1821; [5] A German translation was published the same year in Jena, under the title Reise durch Sicilien und Griechenland nach Janina in Albanien. [6] The work is illustrated with plates from the drawings of the architect Charles Robert Cockerell. In 1822 he published An Address to the People of England in the cause of the Greeks, occasioned by the late inhuman massacres in the Isle of Scio, and in 1823 Considerations upon the Greek Revolution, with a Vindication of the author's "Address" … from the attacks of C. B. Sheridan. His major work, the continuation of David Hume and Tobias Smollett's History of England from the accession of George III, was undertaken in 1834, at the request of A. J. Valpy. It was written quickly in monthly issues; but Hughes republished it with corrections, and with a large part actually rewritten. A third edition was issued in 1846 in seven octavo volumes.

In 1830 Hughes undertook an edition of the writings of divines of the English church in a cheap and popular form, with a biographical memoir of each writer, and a summary in the form of an analysis prefixed to each of their works. Twenty-two volumes of this collection appeared.

Hughes also wrote:

His literary and artistic collections were sold by Sotheby in January and February 1848.


He married April 1823 Ann Maria, daughter of the Rev. John Forster of Great Yarmouth; she lived until 5 April 1890. His son was the cricketer and diplomatic consul Thomas Fiott Hughes.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isaac Barrow</span> English Christian theologian, and mathematician

Isaac Barrow was an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for proof of the fundamental theorem of calculus. His work centered on the properties of the tangent; Barrow was the first to calculate the tangents of the kappa curve. He is also notable for being the inaugural holder of the prestigious Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics, a post later held by his student, Isaac Newton.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greek Revival architecture</span> Architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries

Greek Revival architecure was an style which began in the middle of the 18th century but which particularly flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in northern Europe, the United States, and Canada, as well as in Greece itself following its independence in 1832. It revived many aspects of the forms and styles of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the Greek temple. A product of Hellenism, Greek Revival architecture is looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture, which was drawn from Roman architecture. The term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell in a lecture he gave as an architecture professor at the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1842.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard Bentley</span> English classical scholar, critic, and theologian (1662–1742)

Richard Bentley FRS was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian. Considered the "founder of historical philology", Bentley is widely credited with establishing the English school of Hellenism. In 1892, A. E. Housman called Bentley "the greatest scholar that England or perhaps that Europe ever bred".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ali Pasha of Ioannina</span> Albanian ruler (1740–1822)

Ali Pasha or Ali Pasha of Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha of Ioannina, was an Albanian ruler who served as Ottoman pasha of the Pashalik of Yanina, a large part of western Rumelia, which under his rule acquired a high degree of autonomy and even managed to stay de facto independent. The capital of the Pashalik was Ioannina, which along with Tepelena were Ali's headquarters. Conceiving his territory in increasingly independent terms, Ali Pasha's correspondence and foreign Western correspondence frequently refer to the territories under Ali's control as "Albania", which by Ali's definition included central and southern Albania, and parts of mainland Greece; in particular, most of the district of Epirus and the western parts of Thessaly and Macedonia. He managed to stretch his control over the sanjaks of Yanina, Delvina, Vlora and Berat, Elbasan, Ohrid and Monastir, Görice, and Tirhala. Ali was granted the Sanjak of Tirhala in 1787, and he delegated in 1788 its government to his second born Veli Pasha, who also became Pasha of the Morea Eyalet in 1807. Ali's eldest son Muhtar Pasha was granted the Sanjak of Karli-Eli and the Sanjak of Eğriboz in 1792, stretching for the first time Ali's control down to Livadia and the Gulf of Corinth, except Attica. Muhtar Pasha also became governor of the Sanjak of Ohrid in 1796–7 and of the Sanjak of Vlora and Berat in 1810.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Cosin</span> English Bishop

John Cosin was an English bishop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Rainbowe</span> English academic, clergyman and preacher

Edward Rainbowe or Rainbow (1608–1684) was an English academic, Church of England clergyman and a noted preacher. He was Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge and Bishop of Carlisle.

The toponym Albania may indicate several different geographical regions: a country in Southeast Europe; an ancient land in the Caucasus; as well as Scotland, Albania being a Latinization of a Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba; and a city in the U.S. state of New York.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Lort Mansel</span> English churchman

William Lort Mansel was an English churchman and Cambridge fellow. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge from 1798 to his death in 1820, and also Bishop of Bristol from 1808 to 1820.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Norman–Arab–Byzantine culture</span> High Mediaeval cultural confluence in north Africa, southern Italy, and Sicily

The term Norman–Arab–Byzantine culture, Norman–Sicilian culture or, less inclusively, Norman–Arab culture, refers to the interaction of the Norman, Byzantine Greek, Latin, and Arab cultures following the Norman conquest of the former Emirate of Sicily and North Africa from 1061 to around 1250. The civilization resulted from numerous exchanges in the cultural and scientific fields, based on the tolerance shown by the Normans towards the Latin- and Greek-speaking Christian populations and the former Arab Muslim settlers. As a result, Sicily under the Normans became a crossroad for the interaction between the Norman and Latin Catholic, Byzantine–Orthodox, and Arab–Islamic cultures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Whitaker (theologian)</span> English theologian (1548–1595)

William Whitaker was a prominent Protestant Calvinistic Anglican churchman, academic, and theologian. He was Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, and a leading divine in the university in the latter half of the sixteenth century. His uncle was Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral and catechist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pashalik of Yanina</span> Autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire

The Pashalik of Yanina, sometimes referred to as the Pashalik of Ioannina or Pashalik of Janina, was an autonomous pashalik within the Ottoman Empire between 1787 and 1822 covering large areas of Albania, Greece, and North Macedonia. Under the Ottoman Albanian ruler Ali Pasha, the pashalik acquired a high degree of autonomy and even managed to stay de facto independent, though this was never officially recognized by the Ottoman Empire. Conceiving his territory in increasingly independent terms, Ali Pasha's correspondence and foreign Western correspondence frequently refer to the territories under Ali's control as Albania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pashalik of Berat</span> Autonomous region of Ottoman Empire (1774 - 1809)

The Pashalik of Berat was a pashalik created in modern-day central Albania by Ahmet Kurt Pasha in 1774 and dissolved after Ahmet's ally, Ibrahim Pasha of Berat was defeated by Ali Pasha in 1809, thus incorporating the pashalik, with the Pashalik of Janina. This pashalik was one of the three pashaliks created by Albanians in the period of Albanian Pashaliks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albanian Pashaliks</span> Three semi-independent pashaliks ruled by Albanian pashas from 1756 to 1831

The Albanian Pashaliks were three semi-independent pashaliks ruled by Albanian pashas from 1760 to 1831 and covering the territory of modern Albania, Kosovo, most of Montenegro, southern Serbia, western North Macedonia and most of mainland Greece. The degree of independence of these pashaliks varied over time, from semi-autonomous to de facto independent.

Richard Howland (1540–1600) was an English churchman and academic, Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, and of St John's College, Cambridge, and bishop of Peterborough.

Peter Peckard was an English Whig, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, Church of England minister and abolitionist. From 1781 he was Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. He was incorporated at Cambridge in 1782, appointed vice-chancellor in 1784, and created Doctor of Divinity (DD) per literas regias in 1785. In April 1792 he became Dean of Peterborough.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Janina vilayet</span> Province of the Ottoman Empire from 1867 to 1912

The Vilayet of Janina, Yanya or Ioannina was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867. In the late 19th century, it reportedly had an area of 18,320 square kilometres (7,070 sq mi). It was created by merging the Pashalik of Yanina and the Pashalik of Berat with the sanjaks of Janina, Berat, Ergiri, Preveze, Tırhala and Kesriye. Kesriye was later demoted to kaza and bounded to Monastir Vilayet and Tırhala was given to Greece in 1881.

Thomas Kipling was a British churchman and academic.

Pierre Lévêque was a 20th-century French historian of ancient and Hellenistic Greece.

Neilos Doxapatres was a Byzantine Greek monk, theologian, and writer active in Constantinople and Sicily during the first half of the 12th century.

James Devereux Hustler (1784–1849) was an English cleric and academic. He was a mathematician, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1819.



  1. "Hughes, Thomas Smart (HHS803TS)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. The Athenæum. 1834. p. 459. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  3. Thomas Smart Hughes, Travels in Sicily, Greece, and Albania, vol. 1; vol. 2, London, 1820, in 4o.
  4. Thomas Smart Hughes, Travels in Greece and Albania, vol. 1; vol. 2, London, 1830, in 8o.
  5. Thomas Smart Hughes, Voyage à Janina en Albanie, par la Sicile et la Grèce, vol. 1; vol. 2, Paris, 1821.
  6. Thomas Smart Hughes, Reise durch Sicilien und Griechenland nach Janina in Albanien, Jena, 1821.

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Hughes, Thomas Smart". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.