Sir Thomas D’Oyly Snow
|Born||5 May 1858|
Newton Valence, Hampshire
|Died||30 August 1940 82) (aged|
Kensington Gate, London
|Years of service||1879–1920|
|Unit|| 13th Regiment of Foot |
Somerset Light Infantry
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
|Commands held|| Western Command (1918–19)|
VII Corps (1915–18)
27th Division (1914–15)
4th Division (1911–14)
|Battles/wars|| Zulu War |
First World War
|Awards|| Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath |
Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
Mentioned in Despatches (8)
Commander of the Legion of Honour (France)
Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas D’Oyly Snow, KCB , KCMG (5 May 1858 – 30 August 1940) was a British Army officer who fought on the Western Front during the First World War. He played an important role in the war, leading the 4th Division in the retreat of August 1914, and commanding VII Corps at the unsuccessful Gommecourt diversion on the first day on the Somme (1 July 1916) and at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917.
Lieutenant general, formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines. It is the equivalent of a multinational three-star rank; some British lieutenant generals sometimes wear three-star insignia, in addition to their standard insignia, when on multinational operations.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918.
Snow was born at Newton Valence, Hampshire, on 5 May 1858.He was the eldest son of the Reverend George D'Oyly Snow and his wife Maria Jane Barlow, Snow attended Eton College (1871–1874) and went to St John's College, Cambridge in 1878.
Newton Valence is a village and civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England. It is 4.4 miles (7.1 km) south of Alton, just off the A32 road.
Eton College is a 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore , as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton's history and influence have made Eton one of the most prestigious schools in the world.
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion, learning and research. It is one of the larger Oxbridge colleges in terms of student numbers. For 2018, St. John’s was ranked 9th of 29 colleges in the Tompkins Table with over 30% of its students earning First-class honours.
Snow obtained a commission in the 13th Regiment of Foot in 1879,taking part in the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa the same year. In 1884–1885, having transferred to the Mounted Infantry Regiment of the Camel Corps, Snow fought with them in the Nile Expedition of the Mahdist War at the Battle of Abu Klea and the Battle of El Gubat. He was severely wounded at the latter battle on 19 January 1885.
The Somerset Light Infantry was a light infantry infantry regiment of the British Army, which served under various titles from 1685 to 1959. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry to form the Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry which was again amalgamated, in 1968, with the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the King's Shropshire Light Infantry and the Durham Light Infantry to form The Light Infantry. In 2007, however, The Light Infantry was amalgamated further with the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment and the Royal Green Jackets to form The Rifles.
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as High Commissioner for the British Empire to bring such plans into being. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the South African Republic and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 24th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 58 million people, is also the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.
In 1887, he was promoted to captain and attended the Staff College, Camberley from 1892 to 1893 as a student. Snow was promoted in 1895 to brigade major at Aldershot and further in 1897 to major in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.Snow was brigade major for William Gatacre in the Nile campaign of 1898, fighting at the Battle of Atbara and the Siege of Khartoum. He was twice Mentioned in Despatches for his services in the Sudan.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force. The rank of captain in the Royal Navy is considerably more senior and the two ranks should not be confused.
Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, was a staff college for the British Army and the presidency armies of British India. It had its origins in the Royal Military College, High Wycombe founded in 1799, which in 1802 became the Senior Department of the new Royal Military College. In 1858 the name of the Senior Department was changed to "Staff College", and in 1870 this was separated from the Royal Military College. Apart from periods of closure during major wars, the Staff College continued to operate until 1997, when it was merged into the new Joint Services Command and Staff College. The equivalent in the Royal Navy was the Royal Naval Staff College, Greenwich and the equivalent in the Royal Air Force was the RAF Staff College, Bracknell.
A brigade major was the chief of staff of a brigade in the British Army. He most commonly held the rank of major, although the appointment was also held by captains, and was head of the brigade's "G - Operations and Intelligence" section directly, and oversaw the two other branches, "A – Administration" and "Q – Quartermaster". Intentionally ranked lower than the lieutenant colonels commanding the brigade's combat battalions, his role was to expand on, detail and execute the intentions of the commanding brigadier.
Snow was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel, and in April 1899 he became the second-in-command of the 2nd Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment,and was posted to India, causing him to miss out on service in the Second Boer War. In March 1903, he was promoted to substantive lieutenant colonel and returned home, so never actually commanded a battalion of his own. In June 1903 he was promoted to colonel and appointed assistant quartermaster-general of the 4th Corps (which later became Eastern Command). He stayed there being promoted to assistant adjutant-general (1905), brigadier-general, general staff (1906), and commander of the 11th Brigade (October 1909). He had been appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1907 Birthday Honours.
In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted. The promotion would be noted in the officer's title.
Lieutenant colonel, is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries. The rank is superior to major, and subordinate to colonel. The comparable Royal Navy rank is commander, and the comparable rank in the Royal Air Force and many Commonwealth air forces is wing commander.
The Northamptonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1960. In 1960, it was amalgamated with the Royal Lincolnshire Regiment to form the 2nd East Anglian Regiment, which was amalgamated with the 1st East Anglian Regiment, the 3rd East Anglian Regiment and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to form the present Royal Anglian Regiment.
Snow was then promoted to major-general in March 1910 and became the General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the 4th Division, then serving in Eastern Command, in early 1911.In 1912, as GOC of the 4th Division, Snow took part in the Army Manoeuvres of 1912, the last major manoeuvres before the First World War, as part of the 'Blue Force' under Sir James Grierson which gained a clear 'victory' over the 'Red Force' of Douglas Haig. According to James Edmonds, who served under Snow, his only practice at division command was three or four days at army manoeuvres, which were not practical as General Sir Charles Douglas, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) from April 1914, had forbidden retreats to be practiced. However, he also concentrated on making junior officers critique one another's performance, and on night moves, march discipline and concealment from the air. He drew up Standing Orders for War, which were used by other divisions in 1914.
Major general, is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank was also briefly used by the Royal Air Force for a year and a half, from its creation to August 1919. In the British Army, a major general is the customary rank for the appointment of division commander. In the Royal Marines, the rank of major general is held by the Commandant General.
The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War. It was disbanded after the war and reformed in the 1950s as an armoured formation before being disbanded and reformed again and finally disbanded on 1 January 2012.
Eastern Command was a Command of the British Army.
On the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Snow was still in command of 4th Division,which was initially deployed for home defence on the eastern coast, headquartered in Suffolk. Although Snow had written the Eastern Command's Defence Scheme for event of war as a staff officer years before, he recalled he found that "very few people knew, or cared, that such a scheme existed and the chaos on the East Coast was appalling".
When the division arrived at the front (25 August) Snow's orders were to help prepare a defensive position on the Cambrai-Le Cateau position, as General Headquarters (GHQ) had no idea of the seriousness of the situation facing II Corps (this being at a time when I and II Corps were retreating on opposite sides of the Forest of Mormal, and the British Expeditionary Force's Chief of Staff, Archibald Murray, was about to collapse from strain and overwork).Snow was in time to take part in the Battle of Le Cateau. The 4th Division covered the left flank of II Corps and he was one of those who urged Smith-Dorrien to stand and fight. The diary of Lieutenant-General Horace Smith-Dorrien, the GOC of II Corps, recorded:
I learned in the course of the morning that the 4th Division (General Snow, now Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas D'Oyly Snow) had reached Le Cateau from England, and was delighted to hear that the Chief [that is, Field Marshal Sir John French, commanding the BEF] had immediately pushed it out to Solesmes, about seven miles north-west of Le Cateau, to cover the retirement of the Cavalry and 3rd Division.
Snow's division retired successfully after the battle, but both GHQ and the French were left with an exaggerated impression of the losses suffered at Le Cateau. Wilson, BEF Sub Chief of Staff, issued the infamous "sauve qui peut" order (27 August), ordering Snow to dump unnecessary ammunition and officers’ kits so that tired and wounded soldiers could be carried. Smith-Dorrien was later rebuked by Field Marshal French for countermanding the order.Snow later wrote “the retreat of 1914 was not, as is now imagined, a great military achievement, but rather a badly bungled affair only prevented from being a disaster of the first magnitude by the grit displayed by the officers and the men”.
Then Brigadier-General Aylmer Haldane, who commanded the 10th Brigade under Snow in 1914, was highly critical of him, although he also thought many other officers of the division not up to the standards of competence required in war. By September 1914 three out of four battalion COs had been "sent home", and Snow was lucky to retain his command.Snow later revisited some places from the retreat from Mons with Haldane, who recorded in his diary on 10 November 1917: "Though he is an old friend of mine I have never felt the same towards him since that time ... when he showed what a poor spirited man he was when troublous times were upon us".
In September, during the First Battle of the Marne, Snow was hospitalised, badly injured with a cracked pelvis, after his horse fell and rolled on him. In November, after partially recovering (he required further treatment for the rest of the war), he took command of the 27th Division,then being raised at Winchester for deployment to the front at the end of the year. The division consisted of regulars returning from overseas.
Snow's 27th Division was initially trenched at St. Eloibefore relieving a French division in the Ypres Salient. During Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915, Snow's was at first the only unit with HQ east of Ypres. He led his division through the first German poison gas attack. His performance resulted in his appointment as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.
In June, General Lambton, the British Commander in Chief's Military Secretary, wrote to King George V recommending Generals Julian Byng, Snow and Edwin Alderson, as candidates for command of the proposed Canadian Corps. However, General Alderson, the incumbent commander of the 1st Canadian Division, was appointed to command the Canadian Corps and, on 15 July, Snow became commander of VII Corps.
Snow's VII Corps delivered an attack upon the German-held trench fortress of Gommecourt salient on 1 July 1916, as a part of the opening of the Battle of the Somme offensive. The object was to pinch off the salient and beat off counterattacks, whilst also serving as a diversion from the main offensive further south.
Snow did not think Gommecourt a good place for a feint, and protested to Third Army, but GHQ insisted the attack go ahead.Edmonds later wrote that Snow was more scared of Haig and of Allenby, his Army Commander, than he was of the enemy.
A senior officer of the 46th (North Midland) Division later wrote that Snow "had purposely taken no care" to keep preparations secret. He was hampered by the fact that most of the German artillery was hidden behind Gommecourt Wood, out of range of all but the heaviest British guns, whilst there was insufficient British artillery (16x18 pounder guns and 4x4.5 howitzers per brigade). The 56th (1/1st London) Division captured the German first trench system before being beaten back. The 46th Division's attack failed. The latter failure was blamed on Edward Stuart-Wortley, GOC 46th Division, who was later sacked – although there was a consensus that he was a poor general, he may also have been something of a scapegoat to protect Snow (or even the Army commander, Allenby), as competent senior commanders were in short supply and corps commanders were seldom sacked at this stage of the war.After the war Snow wrote that the Gommecourt salient had proven stronger than anticipated.
In 1917 Snow took part in the British Army's offensives at the Battle of Arras in the Spring (his corps fought on right (southern) wing of Third Army) and the Battle of Cambrai in November.
At Cambrai Snow's VII Corps were on the right flank, and at one point it was suggested that they might be placed under French command if the French joined in the offensive. This did not happen.
Despite being in pain from his injured pelvis, Snow surveyed his positions from Ronssoy-Epehy Ridge each day, and warned his superiors that a German counterattack was brewing for 29 or 30 November. They were still preoccupied with the attack at Bourlon Wood on the left, and did not believe – wrongly – that the Germans had sufficient reserves left after Third Ypres to mount a major attack.At 7pm on 28 November his chief of staff, Brigadier-General Jock Burnett-Stuart, telephoned Julian Byng's chief of staff, Major-General Louis Vaughan, to request reinforcements and was told that the Guards Division could soon be sent. However, when the counterattack came, the Guards Division had already been committed to III Corps.
Bryn Hammond describes Snow at Cambrai as a "safe pair of hands" on account of his experience but also "tired and relatively old"at age 59. After criticism of British leadership during the German counterattack, and along with several other BEF corps commanders, he was replaced largely on grounds of age on 2 January 1918. He returned to England, being appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief for Western Command. He was promoted lieutenant general and appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in recognition of his services on the Western Front. He had also been Mentioned in Despatches six times, appointed a Commander of the Legion of Honour by the French Government, and made a Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold from Belgium.
Snow retired from the army in September 1919.He was also Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment from 1918 to 1919 and Colonel of the Somerset Light Infantry from 1919 to 1929.
Snow became largely confined to a bath chair and moved from Blandford to Kensington. He devoted much of his time to charitable work and became chairman of the Crippled Boys' Home for Training.
Snow died at his home in Kensington Gate, London, on 30 August 1940, aged 82.His wealth at death was £15,531.95 (over £750,000 at 2016 prices).
Snow was 6 feet 4 inches (1.93 m) in height.
Snow married Charlotte Geraldine, second daughter of Major-General John Talbot Coke of Trusley, Derbyshire, on 12 January 1897.They had two sons and one daughter. His son George D'Oyly Snow became the Bishop of Whitby.
Snow was the grandfather of British broadcasters Peter Snow and Jon Snow (who writes about him in the Foreword to Ronald Skirth's war memoir The Reluctant Tommy) and great-grandfather of historian and TV presenter, Dan Snow.
The Battle of Cambrai was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War. The town of Cambrai, in the département of Nord, was an important supply point for the German Siegfriedstellung and capture of the town and the nearby Bourlon Ridge would threaten the rear of the German line to the north. Major General Henry Tudor, Commander, Royal Artillery (CRA) of the 9th (Scottish) Division, advocated the use of new artillery-infantry techniques on his sector of the front. During preparations, J. F. C. Fuller, a staff officer with the Tank Corps, looked for places to use tanks for raids. General Julian Byng, commander of the British Third Army, decided to combine both plans. The French and British armies had used tanks in mass earlier in 1917, although to considerably less effect.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War. Planning for a British Expeditionary Force began with the Haldane reforms of the British Army carried out by the Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War (1899–1902).
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. The corps was expanded by the addition of the 3rd Canadian Division in December 1915 and the 4th Canadian Division in August 1916. The organization of a 5th Canadian Division began in February 1917 but it was still not fully formed when it was broken up in February 1918 and its men used to reinforce the other four divisions.
General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien, was a British Army General. One of the few British survivors of the Battle of Isandlwana as a young officer, he also distinguished himself in the Second Boer War.
Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer Gould Hunter-Weston was a British Army general who served in World War I at Gallipoli and in the very early stages of the Somme Offensive. He was also a Scottish Unionist MP.
IV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army, formed in both the First World War and the Second World War. During the First World War the corps served on the Western Front throughout its existence. During the Second World War it served in Norway and Britain until, after Japan entered the war and India was threatened with attack, it was transferred there.
III Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Major General The Honourable Edward James Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, was a senior British Army officer. He saw extensive active service in many parts of world, including Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Turkey, Malta, Sudan, France and Ireland. He was the source of the "interview" with Kaiser Wilhelm II that was the basis of the Daily Telegraph Affair that weakened the Kaiser's political power in Germany. During the First World War he was controversially dismissed after the Battle of the Somme due to the failure of his division's diversionary attack.
VII Corps was an army corps of the British Army active in the First and Second World Wars. In the early part of the Second World War it was part of the defence forces of the United Kingdom, and later acted as a shadow formation for deception purposes.
The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on the Western Front during the First World War on 26 August 1914. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the French Fifth Army had retreated after their defeats at the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. The British II Corps fought a delaying action at Le Cateau to slow the German pursuit. Most of the BEF was able to continue its retreat to Saint-Quentin.
General Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking was a British general who commanded XI Corps in the First World War.
General Sir Archibald James Murray, was a British Army officer who served in the Second Boer War and the First World War. He was Chief of Staff to the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in August 1914 but appears to have suffered a physical breakdown in the retreat from Mons, and was required to step down from that position in January 1915. After serving as Deputy Chief of the Imperial General Staff for much of 1915, he was briefly Chief of the Imperial General Staff from September to December 1915. He was subsequently Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from January 1916 to June 1917, in which role he laid the military foundation for the defeat and destruction of the Ottoman Empire in the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant.
Lieutenant-General Sir George Montague Harper, was a senior officer of the British Army during the First World War.
Lieutenant General Sir Hugh Jamieson Elles was a British officer and the first commander of the newly formed Tank Corps during World War I.
V Corps was an army corps of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II. It was first organised in February 1915 and fought through World War I on the Western front. It was recreated in June 1940 during World War II and substantially reorganised in 1942 for participation in Operation Torch. It fought through the Tunisia Campaign and later the Italian Campaign.
General Sir Gordon Holmes Alexander MacMillan of MacMillan and Knap, was a professional soldier who rose to become a general in the British Army. As a young officer during the First World War, he displayed outstanding bravery and was awarded a Military Cross and two Bars. At the age of 19 and while still a second lieutenant, he was appointed acting adjutant of the 2nd Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Between the World Wars, MacMillan remained in the army, occupying posts of increasing seniority. He married Marian Blakiston Houston in 1929, and they had one daughter and four sons.
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Fuller Maitland Wilson was a British soldier who served in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Second Boer War and the First World War, during which he commanded a division on the Western Front and an army corps at Salonika.
Lieutenant General Sir Richard Harte Keatinge Butler was a British Army general during the First World War. He was Chief of Staff to First Army for much of 1915, then Deputy Chief of Staff to the BEF from the end of 1915 to the start of 1918. For much of 1918 he commanded III Corps in the front line.
General Jean-François André Sordet was a senior officer of the French Army. During the First World War his cavalry corps operated in close proximity to the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Frontiers and during Great Retreat of August 1914.
Major-General Sir Charles Patrick Amyatt Hull, was a senior British Army officer who served during the Second Boer War and World War I. He was the father of Field Marshal Sir Richard Hull and the grandfather of Lieutenant General Richard Swinburn.
"Archival material relating to Thomas Snow". UK National Archives.
| GOC 4th Division |
|New command|| GOC 27th Division |
|New command|| GOC VII Corps |
Sir William Campbell
| GOC-in-C Western Command |
Sir Beauvoir De Lisle
Sir Alfred Codrington
| Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment |
Sir Thomas Morland