Thomas Snow Beck FRS FRCS (1814 – 6 January 1877) was a British doctor and surgeon. He qualified as a doctor in London. In 1845, he was awarded the Royal Society's Royal Medal for his unpublished paper entitled On the nerves of the uterus. The paper was later published, but the award was disputed by the London-resident Scottish surgeon Robert Lee, who had published an earlier paper on the subject and reached different conclusions. This controversy led to reform of the award process for the Royal Medal, and is thought to have contributed to the resignation of both the President and Secretary of the Royal Society. Beck also carried out other work on nerves, including work in 1846 on differentiation between white and gray rami. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1851.
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.
The Royal Medal, also known as The King's Medal and The Queen's Medal, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations. The award was created by George IV and awarded first during 1826. Initially there were two medals awarded, both for the most important discovery within the year previous, a time period which was lengthened to five years and then shortened to three. The format was endorsed by William IV and Victoria, who had the conditions changed during 1837 so that mathematics was a subject for which a Royal Medal could be awarded, albeit only every third year. The conditions were changed again during 1850 so that:
... the Royal Medals in each year should be awarded for the two most important contributions to the advancement of Natural Knowledge, published originally in Her Majesty's dominions within a period of not more than ten years and not less than one year of the date of the award, subject, of course, to Her Majesty's approval. ... in the award of the Royal Medals, one should be given in each of the two great divisions of Natural Knowledge.
The dorsal ramus of spinal nerve is the posterior division of a spinal nerve. The dorsal ramus is the dorsal branch of a spinal nerve that forms from the dorsal root of the nerve after it emerges from the spinal cord. The spinal nerve is formed from the dorsal and ventral rami. The dorsal ramus carries information that supplies muscles and sensation to the human back.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist. He was born into the prominent Huxley family. After graduating from Westminster School in Central London, from where he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, he joined Alan Lloyd Hodgkin to study nerve impulses. Their eventual discovery of the basis for propagation of nerve impulses earned them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963. They made their discovery from the giant axon of the Atlantic squid. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Huxley was recruited by the British Anti-Aircraft Command and later transferred to the Admiralty. After the war he resumed research at The University of Cambridge, where he developed interference microscopy that would be suitable for studying muscle fibres.
The Royal College of Surgeons of England, is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. It publishes multiple medical journals including the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Faculty Dental Journal, and the Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
Sir Charles Bell was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian. He is noted for discovering the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also noted for describing Bell's palsy.
John Whitaker Hulke FRCS FRS FGS was a British surgeon, geologist and fossil collector. He was the son of a physician in Deal, who became a Huxleyite despite being deeply religious.
Sir Almroth Edward Wright was a British bacteriologist and immunologist.
Prof Alfred Newton Richards was an American pharmacologist.
John Jeremiah Bigsby, M.D., F.R.S, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., was an English physician who became known for his work on geology, an interest developed while on military service in Lower and Upper Canada, 1818-1826. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society. Before moving to London, he was Alderman and Mayor of Newark-upon-Trent, 1827-1830. In 1850, he published a lively book recounting his life and travels in British North America, The Shoe and Canoe. In 1868, he published his most important scientific work, Thesaurus Siluricus, being a list of all the fossils which occur in the Silurian formation across the world. He contributed about twenty seven papers to various scientific societies in London. He published Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus but died shortly before completing Thesaurus Permianus. In 1874, he was awarded the Murchison Medal. In 1876, he endowed the Bigsby Medal.
Sir Salvador Moncada, FRS, FRCP, FMedSci is a Honduran-British pharmacologist and professor. He is currently Research Domain Director for Cancer at the University of Manchester.
Sir Nicholas John Shackleton FRS was an English geologist and paleoclimatologist who specialised in the Quaternary Period. He was the son of the distinguished field geologist Robert Millner Shackleton and great-nephew of the explorer Ernest Shackleton.
Sir Michael Pepper, FRS, FREng is a British physicist notable for his work in semiconductor nanostructures.
The Royal Philatelic Society London (RPSL) is the oldest philatelic society in the world. It was founded on 10 April 1869 as The Philatelic Society, London. The society runs a postal museum, the Museum of Philatelic History, at its Devonshire Place headquarters in London.
Wilfred Batten Lewis Trotter, FRS was an English surgeon, a pioneer in neurosurgery. He was also known for his studies on social psychology, most notably for his concept of the herd instinct, which he first outlined in two published papers in 1908, and later in his famous popular work Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, an early classic of crowd psychology. Trotter argued that gregariousness was an instinct, and studied beehives, flocks of sheep and wolf packs.
Raymond Alexander Price, is an award winning Canadian geologist. He has used his research on the structure and tectonics of North America’s lithosphere to produce extensive geological maps. He has also provided guidance for nuclear fuel waste disposal and reports on the human contribution to Global warming.
Dr Ramsay Heatley Traquair FRSE FRS LLD was a Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist who became a leading expert on fossil fish.
James Arthur Prescott, CBE, FRS, was an agricultural scientist.
Boris Petrovitch Babkin FRS, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D was a Russian-born physiologist, who worked in Russia, England and Canada.
John Haighton MD, FRS, was an English physician and physiologist.
Sir Charles Frederick William Illingworth FRSE FRCSE was a British surgeon who specialised in gastroenterology. Along with a range of teaching and research interests, he wrote several surgical textbooks, and played a leading role in university and medical administration.
Emmanuel Ciprian Amoroso, CBE, FRCS, FRCOG, FRCP, FRCPath, FRS, was a Trinidadian reproductive physiologist and developmental biologist with an interest in placenta physiology. Initially studying medicine in Ireland in the 1920s, he was subsequently based in Britain for the rest of his life. He was the first person from the West Indies to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1957, and he had the distinction of being a Fellow of four of the Royal Colleges: Surgeons in 1960, Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in 1965, Physicians in 1966, and Pathologists in 1973.
Marcus Beck was a British professor of surgery at University College Hospital. He was an early proponent of the germ theory of disease and promoted the discoveries of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister in surgical literature of the time. He gave his name to the Marcus Beck Library at the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM).