|Thomas Spencer Baynes|
Portrait of Thomas Spencer Baynes, painted in 1888
|Born||24 March 1823|
Wellington, Somerset, England
|Died|| 31 May 1887 64) (aged|
|Occupation||philosopher, literary critic|
Thomas Spencer Baynes (24 March 1823 in Wellington – 31 May 1887 in London) was a philosopher.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.
He was son of a Baptist minister, born at Wellington, Somerset, intended to study for Baptist ministry, and was at a theological seminary at Bath with that view, but being strongly attracted to philosophical studies, left it and went to Edinburgh, when he became the favourite pupil of Sir William Hamilton, of whose philosophical system he continued an adherent.
Wellington is a small market town in rural Somerset, a county in the west of England, situated 7 miles (11 km) south west of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district, near the border with Devon, which runs along the Blackdown Hills to the south of the town. The town has a population of 14,549, which includes the residents of the parish of Wellington Without, and the villages of Tone and Tonedale.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles (156 km) west of London and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage site in 1987.
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university. The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North.
After working as editor of a newspaper in Edinburgh, and after an interval of rest rendered necessary by a breakdown in health, Baynes resumed journalistic work in 1858 as assistant editor of the Daily News . In 1864 he was appointed Professor of Logic and English Literature at St Andrews University, in which capacity his mind was drawn to the study of Shakespeare, and he contributed to the Edinburgh Review and Fraser's Magazine valuable papers (chiefly relating to his vocabulary and the extent of his learning) afterwards collected as Shakespeare Studies .
Logic is the systematic study of the form of valid inference, and the most general laws of truth. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore, hence, ergo, and so on.
The Edinburgh Review has been the title of four distinct intellectual and cultural magazines. The best known, longest-lasting, and most influential of the four was the third, which was published regularly from 1802 to 1929.
Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country was a general and literary journal published in London from 1830 to 1882, which initially took a strong Tory line in politics. It was founded by Hugh Fraser and William Maginn in 1830 and loosely directed by Maginn under the name Oliver Yorke until about 1840. It circulated until 1882, when it was renamed Longman's Magazine.
In 1873, he was appointed to superintend the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica , in which, after 1880, he was assisted by William Robertson Smith.Baynes was the first English-born editor of the Britannica; all earlier editors were Scottish.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.
Rev Prof William Robertson Smith DD FRSE LLD was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland. He was an editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica and contributor to the Encyclopaedia Biblica. He is also known for his book Religion of the Semites, which is considered a foundational text in the comparative study of religion.
Robert Blair was a Scottish poet. His fame rests upon his poem The Grave, which, in a later printing was illustrated by William Blake.
Prof David Mather Masson LLD DLitt, was a Scottish academic, literary critic and historian.
John Davies of Hereford was a writing-master and an Anglo-Welsh poet. He referred to himself as John Davies of Hereford in order to distinguish him from others of the same name, particularly the contemporary poet, Sir John Davies (1569–1626).
Thomas Aird was a Scottish poet, best known for his 1830 narrative poem The Captive of Fez.
Chambers's Encyclopaedia was founded in 1859 by William and Robert Chambers of Edinburgh and became one of the most important English language encyclopaedias of the 19th and 20th centuries, developing a reputation for accuracy and scholarliness that was reflected in other works produced by the Chambers publishing company. The encyclopaedia is no longer produced. A selection of illustrations and woodblocks used to produce the first two editions of the encyclopaedia can be seen on a digital resource hosted on the National Museums Scotland website.
Sir Robert Aytoun or Ayton (1570–1638) was a Scottish poet.
John Caird was a Scottish theologian. He entered the Church of Scotland, of which he became one of the most eloquent preachers. He served as the Principal of the University of Glasgow from 1873 until 1898.
John Cleveland was an English poet who supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. He was best known for political satire.
John Colin Dunlop FRSE was a Scottish advocate and historian.
Edward Fairfax was an English translator.
Francis Hindes Groome, son of Robert Hindes Groome Archdeacon of Suffolk. A writer and foremost commentator of his time on the Romani people, their language, life, history, customs, beliefs, and lore.
William Laidlaw (1780–1845) was a Scottish poet. The son of a border farmer, he became steward and amanuensis to Walter Scott, and was the author of a well-known ballad, Lucy's Flittin.
George Alfred Lawrence was a British novelist and barrister.
Sir Theodore Martin was a Scottish poet, biographer, and translator.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
John Bellenden or Ballantyne of Moray was a Scottish writer of the 16th century.
Thomas Seccombe (1866—1923) was a miscellaneous English writer and, from 1891 to 1901, assistant editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, in which he wrote over 700 entries. He was educated at Felsted and Balliol College, Oxford, taking a first in Modern History in 1889.
John Wesley Hales, was a British scholar and man of letters.
David Patrick FRSE LLD was a Scottish writer and editor. He edited Chambers's Encyclopaedia from 1888 to 1892, Chambers's Biographical Dictionary in 1897 and Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature with F. H. Groome from 1901 to 1903.
John William Cousin (1849–1910) was a British writer, editor and biographer. He was one of six children born to William and Anne Ross Cousin, his mother being a noted hymn-writer, in Scotland. A fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries and secretary of the Actuarial Society of Edinburgh, he revised and wrote the introduction for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Evangeline in 1907.
A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John William Cousin (1849–1910), published in 1910. Most of the entries consist of only one paragraph but some entries, like William Shakespeare's, are quite lengthy.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project ; multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later.