Thomas Spinelly

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Thomas Spinelly was Henry VIII of England’s representative in the Low Countries in 1510 [1] and to Spain in 1517–8. [2]

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Spinel a mineral or gemstone

Spinel is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl
in the cubic crystal system. Its name comes from the Latin word spinella, which means spine in reference to its pointed crystals.

Ruby Variety of corundum, mineral, gemstone

A ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, together with amethyst, sapphire, emerald, and diamond. The word ruby comes from ruber, Latin for red. The color of a ruby is due to the element chromium.

Black Princes Ruby

The Black Prince's Ruby is a large, irregular cabochon red spinel weighing 170 carats (34 g) set in the cross pattée above the Cullinan II diamond at the front of the Imperial State Crown of the United Kingdom. The spinel is one of the oldest parts of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, with a history dating back to the middle of the 14th century. It has been in the possession of England's rulers since it was given in 1367 to its namesake, Edward of Woodstock.

William Knight was the Secretary of State to Henry VIII of England, and Bishop of Bath and Wells.


Franklinite is an oxide mineral belonging to the normal spinel subgroup's iron (Fe) series, with the formula ZnFe3+2O4.

Emery (rock) Metamorphic rock

Emery, or corundite, is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder. It largely consists of corundum, mixed with other minerals such as the iron-bearing spinels, hercynite, and magnetite, and also rutile (titania). Industrial emery may contain a variety of other minerals and synthetic compounds such as magnesia, mullite, and silica.


Lherzolite is a type of ultramafic igneous rock. It is a coarse-grained rock consisting of 40 to 90% olivine along with significant orthopyroxene and lesser amounts of calcic chromium-rich clinopyroxene. Minor minerals include chromium and aluminium spinels and garnets. Plagioclase can occur in lherzolites and other peridotites that crystallize at relatively shallow depths. At greater depth plagioclase is unstable and is replaced by spinel. At approximately 90 km depth, pyrope garnet becomes the stable aluminous phase. Garnet lherzolite is a major constituent of the Earth's upper mantle. Lherzolite is known from the lower ultramafic part of ophiolite complexes, from alpine-type peridotite massifs, from fracture zones adjacent to mid-oceanic ridges, and as xenoliths in kimberlite pipes and alkali basalts. Partial melting of spinel lherzolite is one of the primary sources of basaltic magma.


Ceylonite and pleonaste are dingy blue or grey to black varieties of spinel. Ceylonite, named for the island of Ceylon, is a ferroan spinel with Mg:Fe from 3:1 and 1:1, and little or no ferric iron. Pleonaste is named from the Greek for 'abundant,' for its many crystal forms, and is distinguished chemically by low Mg:Fe ratios of approximately 1:3. It is sometimes used as a gemstone.


Galaxite, also known as 'mangan-spinel' is an isometric mineral belonging to the spinel group of oxides with the ideal chemical formula Mn2+

Robert Carew, 3rd Baron Carew

Robert Shapland George Julian Carew, 3rd Baron Carew KP DL was an Anglo-Irish nobleman.

The Samarian Spinel is a 500-carat (100 g) spinel gemstone that is the largest of its kind in the world. It is part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.

Birthstone Gemstones representing a persons birth month

A birthstone is a gemstone that represents a person's period of birth that is usually the month or zodiac sign. Birthstones are often worn as jewelry or as a pendant necklace.

Macle is a term used in crystallography. It is a crystalline form, twin-crystal or double crystal. It is crystallographic twin according to the spinel twin law and is seen in octahedral crystals of minerals such as diamond and spinel. The twin law name comes from the fact that is commonly observed in the mineral spinel. Macle is an old French word, a heraldic term for a voided lozenge. Etymologically the word is derived from the Latin macula meaning spot, mesh, or hole.

Taaffeite Rare gemstone

Taaffeite (; BeMgAl4O8) is a mineral, named after its discoverer Richard Taaffe (1898–1967) who found the first sample, a cut and polished gem, in October 1945 in a jeweler's shop in Dublin, Ireland. As such, it is the only gemstone to have been initially identified from a faceted stone. Most pieces of the gem, prior to Taaffe, had been misidentified as spinel. For many years afterwards, it was known only in a few samples, and it is still one of the rarest gemstone minerals in the world.

Richard Taaffe

Edward Charles Richard Taaffe (1898–1967), known as Richard, was an Austrian gemmologist who found the first cut and polished taaffeite in November 1945. He was the son of Count Henry Taaffe, 12th Viscount Taaffe, an Austrian landowner, and Maria Magda Fuchs; his grandfather was the Austrian Prime Minister Eduard Taaffe.

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The spinels are any of a class of minerals of general formulation AB
which crystallise in the cubic (isometric) crystal system, with the X anions arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations A and B occupying some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice. Although the charges of A and B in the prototypical spinel structure are +2 and +3, respectively, other combinations incorporating divalent, trivalent, or tetravalent cations, including magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, titanium, and silicon, are also possible. The anion is normally oxygen; when other chalcogenides constitute the anion sublattice the structure is referred to as a thiospinel.

Tudor Crown

The Tudor Crown, also known as Henry VIII's Crown, was the imperial and state crown used by the monarchs of England and Great Britain from around the time of Henry VIII up to the English Civil War in 1649. It was described by the art historian Sir Roy Strong as "a masterpiece of early Tudor jeweller's art", and its form has been compared to the crown of the Holy Roman Empire.

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  1. Robert Hutchinson, ‘’Young Henry’’, 2012, p.150
  2. Behrens, Betty The Office of the English Resident Ambassador: Its Evolution as Illustrated by the Career of Sir Thomas Spinelly, 1509-22, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fourth Series, Vol. 16, (1933), pp.161-195