Thomas Stanwix

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Thomas Stanwix
Born1670
Died14 March 1725
AllegianceUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch British Army
Rank Brigadier General
Battles/wars War of the Spanish Succession

Brigadier General Thomas Stanwix (1670 – 14 March 1725) was a British Army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1702 to 1725. He served as Governor of Gibraltar.

Governor of Gibraltar

The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The governor is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the British Government. The role of the governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and he is responsible for formally appointing the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, along with other members of the Government of Gibraltar after a general election. The governor serves as commander-in-chief of Gibraltar's military forces and has sole responsibility for defence and security.

Career

Stanwix joined the Army and had become a captain-lieutenant in Hasting's Foot Regiment by 1692. [1] In March 1702 he was elected Member of Parliament for Carlisle. [2] He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor for Carlisle in 1705 and found that his main challenge was stopping the smuggling across the border between England and Scotland. [1]

Carlisle (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Carlisle is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by John Stevenson of the Conservative Party.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Scotland Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and the North Channel to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

In 1703, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Stanwix was present at the Battle of Caia in Portugal. [1] In 1711 he became Governor of Gibraltar. [1] Except from a personal perspective he was unsuccessful as a governor, as his main achievement was to become richer than when he arrived. Observers felt that he should have concentrated on encouraging the Dutch to leave so that the benefits of the Capture of Gibraltar (in 1704) could be directed entirely in Britain's direction. Stanwick was tenacious as even when he was replaced by David Colyear he stayed on as lieutenant-governor for some months. [1]

War of the Spanish Succession 18th-century conflict in Europe

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700, eventually evolving into a global conflict due to overseas colonies and allies. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.

Caia (river) river in Portugal

The Caia is a river in the Iberian Peninsula, a tributary to the Guadiana. It is one of the main water courses in the Portalegre District, Portugal. Portugal does not recognise the border between the Caia and Ribeira de Cuncos River deltas, since the beginning of the 1801 occupation of Olivenza by Spain. This territory, though under de facto Spanish occupation, remains a de jure part of Portugal, consequently no border is henceforth recognised in this area.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

In 1713 Stanwix returned to England and became Mayor of Carlisle for 1715 as well as Deputy Lieutenant of Cumberland, thereby increasing his influence in the Carlisle area. [1] He was a Whig MP who strongly supported Robert Walpole. [1] He lost his seat in Carlisle in 1721 when seeking re-election on appointment to office, and instead became MP for Newport (Isle of Wight). He also became Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull in 1721 until his death. In the 1722 general election he was defeated at Carlisle but was returned as MP for Yarmouth (Isle of Wight). [3]

Robert Walpole British statesman

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford,, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Newport was a parliamentary borough located in Newport, which was abolished in for the 1885 general election. It was occasionally referred to by the alternative name of Medina.

1722 British general election

The 1722 British general election elected members to serve in the House of Commons of the 6th Parliament of Great Britain. This was the fifth such election since the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. Thanks to the Septennial Act of 1715, which swept away the maximum three-year life of a parliament created by the Meeting of Parliament Act 1694, it followed some seven years after the previous election, that of 1715.

Stanwix was also Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea from 1714 until 1720. [4]

Royal Hospital Chelsea retirement home and nursing home for British soldiers

The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army. Founded as an almshouse, the ancient sense of the word "hospital", it is a 66-acre (27 ha) site located on Royal Hospital Road in Chelsea. It is an independent charity and relies partly upon donations to cover day-to-day running costs to provide care and accommodation for veterans.

Stanwix died in 1725. [1] He left his estates in Carlisle and Middlesex to his wife, and on her death to his nephew John Roos, on condition that he assumed the surname of Stanwix. [5]

John Stanwix British Army general

John Stanwix was a British soldier and politician.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thomas Stanwix at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. "STANWIX, Thomas (?1667-1725), of Carlisle, Cumb". History of Parliament Online (1690-1715). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  3. "STANWIX, Thomas (c.1670-1725), of Carlisle, Cumb". History of Parliament Online (1715-1754). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  4. Walter H. Godfrey, ed. (1927), Survey of London, 11, pp. 37–60
  5. "The Mayfields - Robert & Sarah". Ancestry. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Sir James Lowther
Philip Howard
Member of Parliament for Carlisle
1702–1707
With: Christopher Musgrave 1702–1705
Sir James Montague 1705–1707
Succeeded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Parliament of England
Member of Parliament for Carlisle
1707–1721
With: Sir James Montagu 1707–1713
Sir Christopher Musgrave, Bt 1713–1715
William Strickland 1715–1721
Succeeded by
Henry Aglionby
William Strickland
Preceded by
William Stephens
Sir Tristram Dillington
Member of Parliament for Newport
1721–1722
With: William Stephens
Succeeded by
William Stephens
Earl of March
Preceded by
Anthony Morgan
William Plumer
Member of Parliament for Yarmouth
1722–1725
With: Anthony Morgan
Succeeded by
Anthony Morgan
Maurice Morgan
Military offices
Preceded by
Roger Elliott
Governor of Gibraltar
1711–1713
Succeeded by
The Earl of Portmore
Preceded by
Richard Philipps
Colonel of Stanwix's Regiment of Foot
1717–1725
Succeeded by
Thomas Whetham
Preceded by
The Viscount of Irvine
Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull
1721–1725
Succeeded by
The Earl of Cholmondeley
Honorary titles
Preceded by
John Hales
Governor, Royal Hospital Chelsea
1714–1720
Succeeded by
Charles Churchill