Thomas Staunton St. Clair
|Died||23 October 1847|
Major General Thomas Staunton St Clair CB KH (1785 – 1847) was a British Army officer known for his water-colour paintings which recorded British colonies in Gibraltar.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians. It shares a maritime border with Morocco.
St Clair was born in Gibraltar in 1785 where his father, William, was a colonel of the 25th regiment. Thomas had an elder brother called William who was involved with the mutiny in Gibraltar. William died fighting in Martinique in 1809.He also had a brother David and two sisters. His father was a friend of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and he was able to use this to advance his career more rapidly.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres (436 sq mi) and a population of 376,480 inhabitants as of January 2016. Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, southeast of Greater Antilles, northwest of Barbados, and south of Dominica.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
He signed up for the British Army, joining the 94th Regiment of Foot in 1803, and the following year he was a lieutenant. In 1814 he was awarded an Army Gold Medal for his part in the Battle of the Nive.By 21 June 1817 he was a lieutenant colonel.
The 94th Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised as the Scotch Brigade in October 1794. It was renumbered as the 94th Regiment of Foot in December 1802 and disbanded in December 1818. The regiment was reformed in December 1823 and served until 1881 when it amalgamated with the 88th Regiment of Foot to form the Connaught Rangers.
The Army Gold Medal (1808–1814), also known as the Peninsular Gold Medal, with an accompanying Gold Cross, was a British campaign medal awarded in recognition of field and general officers' successful commands in campaigns, predominantly the Peninsular War. It was not a general medal, since it was issued only to officers whose status was no less than that of battalion commander or equivalent.
The Battles of the Nive were fought towards the end of the Peninsular War. Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish army defeated Marshal Nicolas Soult's French army in a series of battles near the city of Bayonne.
In 1820, St. Clair returned to the Rock of Gibraltar as one of the senior officers in command of the garrison at the age of just 36.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as The Rock, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. It is 426 m (1,398 ft) high. Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 300 Barbary macaques. These macaques, as well as a labyrinthine network of tunnels, attract a large number of tourists each year.
In 1832 he was sent to Malta and in 1834 he published A Soldiers Recollections of the West Indies and America.This included his journey to Stabroek aboard HMS Brilliant that arrived early in 1806 and left him in South America until his return in June 1808.
Stabroek is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. The municipality comprises the towns of Hoevenen and Stabroek proper. On December 31, 2006 Stabroek had a total population of 17,618. The total area is 21.51 km² which gives a population density of 818 inhabitants per km². In 2008 Stabroek celebrated its 750-year-old existence.
HMS Brilliant was a 28-gun Enterprise-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Brilliant was first commissioned in July 1779 under the command of Captain John Ford.
He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in the 1838 Coronation Honours.St. Clair died in Malta in 1846 a year after he was made a major-general.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.
The 1838 Coronation Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours on the occasion of her coronation on 28 June 1838. The honours were published in The London Gazette on 20 July and 24 July 1838.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely-populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.
He married Caroline Woodbridge of Richmond, Surrey who was ten years younger than him and they had children. St. Clair has paintings in Gibraltar Museum
The 50th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 97th Regiment of Foot to form the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment in 1881.
General Sir Charles Colville was a British Army officer who served during the Napoleonic Wars. He was an ensign in 1781. He served in the West Indies from 1791 to 1797 and while serving there was promoted to lieutenant-colonel (1796). He helped to suppress the Irish Rebellion of 1798. He was in Egypt in 1801 and fought at Martinique in 1809. He commanded brigade, and afterwards division, in the Peninsular War from 1810 until 1814. During the Waterloo Campaign of 1815 he commanded a division in Belgium and the same year was made a K.C.B.. In 1819 he was promoted to lieutenant-general and served as commander-in-chief at Bombay from 1819 until 1825. He was governor of Mauritius from 1828 until 1834. He was promoted to general in 1837.
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The 85th Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 53rd (Shropshire) Regiment of Foot to form the King's Shropshire Light Infantry in 1881.
General Sir John Fraser, GCH was a British Army officer.
Field Marshal Sir Alexander George Woodford, GCB, KCMG, was a British Army officer. After taking part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, he served in most of the battles of the Napoleonic Wars. During the Hundred Days he commanded the 2nd battalion of the Coldstream Guards at the Battle of Quatre Bras, the Battle of Waterloo and the storming of Cambrai. He went on to become lieutenant governor and brigade commander at Malta, lieutenant governor and brigade commander at Corfu and then commander of the British garrison on the Ionian Islands before being appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar.
Sir Thomas Hislop, 1st Baronet, was a senior British Army officer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Serving exclusively in colonial campaigns, Hislop fought in the West Indies between 1796 and 1810 and subsequently in India, where he was a senior commander during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. Although his ability as a general was praised, Hislop came under criticism in Parliament for his heavy reprisals against forces of the Maratha Empire, particularly at Talnar, where he ordered the execution of over 300 men. He was also known for financial profligacy, losing large sums of money investing unsuccessfully in the Americas. Despite these problems, Hislop was later made a baronet and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, serving in his retirement as an equerry to Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
General Sir James Fergusson, (1787–1865) was a British Army officer during the Napoleonic Wars and the Governor of Gibraltar from 1855 to 1859.
The Coronation Honours 1911 for the British Empire were announced on 19 June 1911, to celebrate the coronation of George V which was held on the 22 June 1911.
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The following notable old boys of Sherborne School were born in the 19th century.
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