Thomas Stephen Cullen (November 20, 1868 – March 4, 1953) was a Canadian gynecologist associated with Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Born in Bridgewater, Ontario, Cullen was educated at the Toronto Collegiate Institute and the University of Toronto, graduating from the latter school with a Bachelor of Medicine degree in 1890. He began studying at Johns Hopkins University the next year, before traveling to Germany and studying at Johannes Orth's laboratory at the University of Göttingen in 1893. From 1893 to 1896, Cullen was in charge of gynecological pathology at Johns Hopkins, and in 1919 he was named a professor of clinical gynecology.
Cullen researched gynecological diseases including uterine cancer and ectopic pregnancy and promoted extensive use of diagrams in biomedical publishing. Cullen's sign, a discoloration of the skin about the navel which is regarded as a sign of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, is named for him. He wrote alone, and in collaboration, four important monographs:
Cullen died at Baltimore, Maryland.
Pelvic inflammatory disease, also known as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often, there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present, may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, bleeding after sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long-term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of Freemasonry. A Rite is a progressive series of degrees conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. In the Scottish Rite the central authority is called a Supreme Council.
The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals. Things occurring in the uterus are described with the term in utero. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation. In the human embryo, the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus. The uterus has different forms in many other animals and in some it exists as two separate uteri known as a duplex uterus.
Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus. Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding, but fewer than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms. The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy. Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred. Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock. With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.
Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure for female sterilization in which the fallopian tubes are permanently blocked or removed. This prevents the fertilization of eggs by sperm and thus the implantation of a fertilized egg. Tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of sterilization and birth control.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries (oophorectomy), Fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), and other surrounding structures.
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These tumours are rare, and they appear when cells in the womb start to proliferate uncontrollably. The cells that form gestational trophoblastic tumours are called trophoblasts and come from tissue that grows to form the placenta during pregnancy.
Cullen's sign is superficial edema and bruising in the subcutaneous fatty tissue around the umbilicus.
Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding from the vagina. This bleeding may originate from the uterus, vaginal wall, or cervix. Generally, it is either part of a normal menstrual cycle or is caused by hormonal or other problems of the reproductive system, such as abnormal uterine bleeding.
Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the recto-uterine pouch. The procedure may lead to other medically relevant findings in the pelvis.
Salpingectomy refers to the surgical removal of a Fallopian tube. This may be done to treat an ectopic pregnancy or cancer, to prevent cancer, or as a form of contraception.
An abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a form of an ectopic pregnancy where the embryo or fetus is growing and developing outside the womb in the abdomen, but not in the Fallopian tube, ovary or broad ligament.
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is group of rare diseases related to pregnancy and included in gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow in the uterus. GTN can be classified into benign and malignant lesions. Benign lesions include placental site nodule and hydatidiform moles while malignant lesions have four subtypes including invasive mole, gestational choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT). The choriocarcinoma has 2 significant subtypes including gestational and non-gestational and they are differentiated by their different biological feature and prognosis. Signs and symptoms of GTN will appear vary from person to person and depending upon the type of the disease. They may include uterine bleeding not related to menstruation, pain or pressure in pelvis, large uterus and high blood pressure during pregnancy. The cause of this disease is unknown but the identification of the tumor based on total beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) in the serum.
John Clarence Webster was a Canadian-born physician pioneering in Obstetrics and gynaecology who in retirement had a second career as an historian, specializing in the history of his native New Brunswick.
Howard Atwood Kelly, M.D., was an American gynecologist. He obtained his B.A. degree and M.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania. He, William Osler, William Halsted, and William Welch together are known as the "Big Four", the founding professors at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He is credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty by developing new surgical approaches to gynecological diseases and pathological research. He also developed several medical innovations, including the improved cystoscope, Kelly's clamp, Kelly's speculum, and Kelly's forceps. Because Kelly was a famous prohibitionist and Fundamentalist Christian, many of his contemporaries expressed skepticism towards his medical professionalism.
Johann Veit was a German gynecologist. He was the son of obstetrician and gynecologist Gustav Veit (1824-1903).
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes, salpinges, or oviducts, are tubes that stretch from the uterus to the ovaries, and are part of the female reproductive system.
An interstitial pregnancy is a uterine but ectopic pregnancy; the pregnancy is located outside the uterine cavity in that part of the fallopian tube that penetrates the muscular layer of the uterus. The term cornual pregnancy is sometimes used as a synonym, but remains ambiguous as it is also applied to indicate the presence of a pregnancy located within the cavity in one of the two upper "horns" of a bicornuate uterus. Interstitial pregnancies have a higher mortality than ectopics in general.
Ovarian pregnancy refers to an ectopic pregnancy that is located in the ovary. Typically the egg cell is not released or picked up at ovulation, but fertilized within the ovary where the pregnancy implants. Such a pregnancy usually does not proceed past the first four weeks of pregnancy. An untreated ovarian pregnancy causes potentially fatal intra-abdominal bleeding and thus may become a medical emergency.
Early pregnancy bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding before 24 weeks of gestational age. If the bleeding is significant, hemorrhagic shock may occur. Concern for shock is increased in those who have loss of consciousness, chest pain, shortness of breath, or shoulder pain.