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**Thomas Stephens Davies** FRS FRSE(1795–1851) was a British mathematician.

A **mathematician** is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

He was born on 1 January 1795.^{ [1] }

Davies made his earliest communications to the * Leeds Correspondent * in July 1817 and the * Gentleman's Diary * for 1819. He subsequently contributed largely to the *Gentleman's and Lady's Diary*, Clay's *Scientific Receptacle*, the *Monthly Magazine*, the * Philosophical Magazine *, the *Bath and Bristol Magazine*, and the *Mechanics' Magazine*. Davies was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 19 March 1840

* Gentleman's Diary or The Mathematical Repository* was an almanac published at the end of the 18th century in England, including mathematical problems.

The * Philosophical Magazine* is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English. It was established by Alexander Tilloch in 1798; in 1822 Richard Taylor became joint editor and it has been published continuously by Taylor & Francis ever since.

Davies's early acquaintance with Dr. William Trail, the author of the *Life of Dr. Robert Simson*, materially influenced his course of study and made him familiar with the old as well as with the modern professors of geometry. He became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1831, and he contributed several original and elaborate papers to its *Transactions*. He also published *Researches on Terrestrial Magnetism* in the *Philosophical Transactions*, *Determination of the Law of Resistance to a Projectile* in the *Mechanics' Magazine*, and other papers in the *Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal*, the *Civil Engineer*, the *Athenæum*, the *Westminster Review*, and *Notes and Queries*.

Rev Dr **William Trail** or **Trail** DD FRSE MRIA LLD was an 18th/19th century Scots-born mathematician, remembered for his mathematical text books. For the majority of his life he served church duties in Northern Ireland.

**Geometry** is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

The **Royal Society of Edinburgh** is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland. It was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows.

In 1831 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being John Shoolbred.^{ [2] } In April, 1833 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.^{ [3] }

**Fellowship of the Royal Society** is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

In 1834, he was appointed one of the mathematical masters in the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Among the numerous subjects that engaged his attention were researches on the properties of the trapezium, Pascal's hexagramme mystique, Brianchon's theorem, symmetrical properties of plane triangles, and researches into the geometry of three dimensions. His new system of spherical geometry preserves his name in the list of well-known mathematicians.

The **Royal Military Academy** (**RMA**) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal.

**Woolwich** is a district of south-east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. Originally a town in Kent, it has been part of the London metropolitan area since the 19th century. In 1965, most of the former Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich became part of Greenwich Borough, of which it remains the administrative centre.

In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a **trapezoid** in American and Canadian English but as a **trapezium** in English outside North America. The parallel sides are called the *bases* of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the *legs* or the lateral sides. A *scalene trapezoid* is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, in contrast to the special cases below.

His presentation "On the Velocipede" in May 1837 is extant as a manuscript and gives a vivid testimony of the rise and putting down of the draisines aka hobby-horses. He must have been an early hobby-horse rider himself according to that (transcript in *The Boneshaker* #108(1985) pp. 4–9 and #111(1986) pp. 7–12))

His death, after six years of illness, took place at Broomhall Cottage, Shooter's Hill, Kent, on 6 January 1851, when he was in his fifty-seventh year.

**Shooter's Hill** is a district in South East London within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It borders the London Borough of Bexley. It lies north of Eltham and south of Woolwich. With a height of 132 metres (433 ft), it is the highest point in the Borough of Greenwich and one of the highest points in London. Shooter's Hill also gives its name to the A road which passes through east to west and is part of the A207 road, the A2 road, and also Watling Street.

**Kent** is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Davies edited the following works:

*A Course of Mathematics for the use of the Royal Military Academy, by Charles Hutton. The eleventh edition by Olinthus Gregory*, 1837, 2 vols.; the principal alterations, additions, and improvements in this work were made by Davies.*Solutions of the Principal Questions in Dr. Hutton's “Course of Mathematics,”*1840.*A Course of Mathematics, by C. Hutton, continued by O. Gregory; twelfth edition by T. S. Davies,*1841–1843, 2 vols.*The Mathematician*, ed. by T. S. Davies and others, 1845, 1847, and 1850.

Of the above, *Solutions of the Principal Questions* is the most important work. It is a large octavo of 560 pages, enriched with four thousand solutions on nearly all subjects of mathematical interest and of various degrees of difficulty.

A long catalogue of Davies's writings is printed in the *Westminster Review*, April 1851, pp. 70–83.

**John Playfair** FRSE, FRS was a Church of Scotland minister, remembered as a scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known for his book *Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth* (1802), which summarised the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience. Playfair's textbook *Elements of Geometry* made a brief expression of Euclid's parallel postulate known now as Playfair's axiom.

Very Reverend **Alexander Carlyle** DD FRSE was a Scottish church leader, and autobiographer.

**Charles Hutton** FRS FRSE LLD was an English mathematician and surveyor. He was professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich from 1773 to 1807. He is remembered for his calculation of the density of the earth from Nevil Maskelyne's measurements collected during the Schiehallion experiment.

**Sir Ilay Campbell, Lord Succoth** (1734–1823) was a Scottish advocate, judge and politician.

**Charles Scott Dickson** FRSE LLD was a Scottish Unionist politician and judge.

**Adair Crawford** FRS FRSE, a chemist and physician, was a pioneer in the development of calorimetric methods for measuring the specific heat capacity of substances and the heat of chemical reactions. In his influential 1779 book "*Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat*", Crawford presented new experiments proving that respiratory gas exchange in animals is a combustion. Crawford also was involved in the discovery of the element strontium.

Very Rev **John Lee**, D.D. FRSE LLD was a Scottish academic and polymath, the Principal of the University of Edinburgh from 1840 to 1859. He was also a Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1844.

**Henry Frederick Baker** FRS FRSE was a British mathematician, working mainly in algebraic geometry, but also remembered for contributions to partial differential equations, and Lie groups.

**Macvey Napier** was a Scottish solicitor, legal scholar, and an editor of the *Encyclopædia Britannica*. He was Professor of Conveyancing at the University of Edinburgh.

**William Rutherford** (1798–1871) was an English mathematician famous for his calculation of 208 digits of the mathematical constant π in 1841.

**George Chrystal** FRSE FRS(8 March 1851 – 3 November 1911) was a Scottish mathematician. He is primarily remembered for his books on algebra and for his studies of seiches which earned him a Gold Medal from the Royal Society of London.

Rev Prof **Philip Kelland**PRSE FRS was an English mathematician. He was known mainly for his great influence on the development of education in Scotland.

Dr **Horatio Scott Carslaw** FRSE LLD was a Scottish-Australian mathematician. The book he wrote with his colleague John Conrad Jaeger, *Conduction of Heat in Solids*, remains a classic in the field.

**Archibald Barr** FRS FRSE LLD was a Scottish scientific engineer, inventor and businessman. He was a co-founder of Barr & Stroud, and invented the Barr & Stroud Rangefinder.

**Robert J. T. Bell** RSE FRSE was a Scottish mathematician. He held the positions of Professor of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science, at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand.

**William Alexander Francis Balfour-Browne** FRSE FZS FLS PRMS (1874–1967), known as Frank, was an English entomologist who specialised in Coleoptera, especially Dytiscidae.

**Daniel John Cunningham** M.D., D.C.L., LL. D. F.R.S., F.R.S.E. was a Scottish physician, zoologist, and anatomist, famous for *Cunningham's Text-book of Anatomy* and *Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy*.

**Elmslie William Dallas** FRSE (1809–1879) was a British artist, teacher and photographer.

**Peter Comrie** FRSE LLD EIS (1868–1944) was a Scottish mathematician and educator. He served as Rector of Leith Academy 1922 to 1933 and President of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society 1916–17.

Prof **Samuel Newby Curle** FRSE (1930-1989) was a notable British mathematician. He served as Professor of Applied Mathematics at St Andrews University from 1967 until 1989. St Andrews University created the **Curle Lecture** in his memory.

"Davies, Thomas Stephens". *Dictionary of National Biography*. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

- Attribution

* Dictionary of National Biography *. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

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