**Thomas Stephens Davies** FRS FRSE(1795–1851) was a British mathematician.

He was born on 1 January 1795.^{ [1] }

Davies made his earliest communications to the * Leeds Correspondent * in July 1817 and the * Gentleman's Diary * for 1819. He subsequently contributed largely to the *Gentleman's and Lady's Diary*, Clay's *Scientific Receptacle*, the *Monthly Magazine*, the * Philosophical Magazine *, the *Bath and Bristol Magazine*, and the *Mechanics' Magazine*. Davies was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 19 March 1840

Davies's early acquaintance with Dr. William Trail, the author of the *Life of Dr. Robert Simson*, materially influenced his course of study and made him familiar with the old as well as with the modern professors of geometry. He became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1831, and he contributed several original and elaborate papers to its *Transactions*. He also published *Researches on Terrestrial Magnetism* in the *Philosophical Transactions*, *Determination of the Law of Resistance to a Projectile* in the *Mechanics' Magazine*, and other papers in the *Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal*, the *Civil Engineer*, the *Athenæum*, the *Westminster Review*, and *Notes and Queries*.

In 1831 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being John Shoolbred.^{ [2] } In April, 1833 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.^{ [3] }

In 1834, he was appointed one of the mathematical masters in the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. Among the numerous subjects that engaged his attention were researches on the properties of the trapezium, Pascal's hexagramme mystique, Brianchon's theorem, symmetrical properties of plane triangles, and researches into the geometry of three dimensions. His new system of spherical geometry preserves his name in the list of well-known mathematicians.

His presentation "On the Velocipede" in May 1837 is extant as a manuscript and gives a vivid testimony of the rise and putting down of the draisines aka hobby-horses. He must have been an early hobby-horse rider himself according to that (transcript in *The Boneshaker* #108(1985) pp. 4–9 and #111(1986) pp. 7–12))

His death, after six years of illness, took place at Broomhall Cottage, Shooter's Hill, Kent, on 6 January 1851, when he was in his fifty-seventh year.

Davies edited the following works:

*A Course of Mathematics for the use of the Royal Military Academy, by Charles Hutton. The eleventh edition by Olinthus Gregory*, 1837, 2 vols.; the principal alterations, additions, and improvements in this work were made by Davies.*Solutions of the Principal Questions in Dr. Hutton's “Course of Mathematics,”*1840.*A Course of Mathematics, by C. Hutton, continued by O. Gregory; twelfth edition by T. S. Davies,*1841–1843, 2 vols.*The Mathematician*, ed. by T. S. Davies and others, 1845, 1847, and 1850.

Of the above, *Solutions of the Principal Questions* is the most important work. It is a large octavo of 560 pages, enriched with four thousand solutions on nearly all subjects of mathematical interest and of various degrees of difficulty.

A long catalogue of Davies's writings is printed in the *Westminster Review*, April 1851, pp. 70–83.

**John Playfair** FRSE, FRS was a Church of Scotland minister, remembered as a scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known for his book *Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth* (1802), which summarised the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience. Playfair's textbook *Elements of Geometry* made a brief expression of Euclid's parallel postulate known now as Playfair's axiom.

**Charles Alfred Coulson** was a British applied mathematician and theoretical chemist.

**Charles Hutton** FRS FRSE LLD was an English mathematician and surveyor. He was professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich from 1773 to 1807. He is remembered for his calculation of the density of the earth from Nevil Maskelyne's measurements collected during the Schiehallion experiment.

Prof **Robert Hamilton** was a Scottish mathematician and political economist. He was a founder member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

**Sir George Clerk of Pennycuik, 6th Baronet** was a Scottish politician who served as the Tory MP for Edinburghshire, Stamford and Dover.

**Adair Crawford** FRS FRSE, a chemist and physician, was a pioneer in the development of calorimetric methods for measuring the specific heat capacity of substances and the heat of chemical reactions. In his influential 1779 book "*Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat*", Crawford presented new experiments proving that respiratory gas exchange in animals is a combustion. Crawford also was involved in the discovery of the element strontium.

**Henry Frederick Baker** FRS FRSE was a British mathematician, working mainly in algebraic geometry, but also remembered for contributions to partial differential equations, and Lie groups.

**William Rutherford** (1798–1871) was an English mathematician famous for his calculation of 208 digits of the mathematical constant π in 1841.

**George Chrystal** FRSE FRS(8 March 1851 – 3 November 1911) was a Scottish mathematician. He is primarily remembered for his books on algebra and for his studies of seiches which earned him a Gold Medal from the Royal Society of London.

**Robert Graham** was a Scottish physician and botanist.

Dr **Horatio Scott Carslaw** FRSE LLD was a Scottish-Australian mathematician. The book he wrote with his colleague John Conrad Jaeger, *Conduction of Heat in Solids*, remains a classic in the field.

Sir **Hugh Cleghorn** FRSE LLD (1751-1836) was the first colonial secretary to Ceylon. He was key in the takeover of Ceylon from Dutch control to the British Empire. In 1795 Cleghorn used his friendship with Comte Charles-Daniel de Meuron, who owned a regiment of Swiss mercenaries, the Regiment de Meuron, that controlled Ceylon for the Dutch, to transfer control to the English. His grandson Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn was instrumental in the foundation of the forest department and forest conservation in India.

**Robert Haldane** FRSE was a British mathematician and minister of the Church of Scotland.

**William Alexander Francis Balfour-Browne** FRSE FZS FLS PRMS (1874–1967), known as Frank, was an English entomologist who specialised in Coleoptera, especially Dytiscidae.

**Daniel John Cunningham** M.D., D.C.L., LL. D. F.R.S., F.R.S.E. F.R.A.I. was a Scottish physician, zoologist, and anatomist, famous for *Cunningham's Text-book of Anatomy* and *Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy*.

**Keith Martin Ball** FRS FRSE is a mathematician and professor at the University of Warwick. He was scientific director of the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS) from 2010 to 2014.

Dr **Charles Bernard Childs** FRSE was a British physicist and mathematician. He was founder and Chairman of the Scottish Community Drama Association. He was also Chairman of the British Universities Film Council.

Prof **Ernest George Coker** FRS FRSE MIME MICE Wh.Ex. (1869–1946) was a British mathematician and engineer. He won the Howard N. Potts Medal for Physics in 1922, and the Rumford Medal for work on polarised light in 1936. He was an expert on stress analysis and Photoelasticity. He contributed to Encyclopædia Britannica and other works under the initials **E.G.C.**

**Francis Chalmers Crawford** FRSE (1851-1908) was a Scottish stockbroker of fame as an amateur botanist and ornithologist. *Saxifraga crawfordii* is named after him. He served as President of the Scottish Microscopical Society.

Prof **Samuel Newby Curle** FRSE (1930-1989) was a British mathematician. He served as Professor of Applied Mathematics at St Andrews University from 1967 until 1989. St Andrews University created the **Curle Lecture** in his memory.

*Dictionary of National Biography*. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. .

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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Davies, Thomas Stephens". * Dictionary of National Biography *. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

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