Thomas Stiles or Styles ( fl. 1642–1662) of Walton in the parish of Paston, Northamptonshire, was a captain in the Royalist army during the English Civil War. He was governor of Crowland in 1642–1643 and after a time as a prisoner, commander of a troop of horse based at Belvoir Castle.
Walton is a residential area and electoral ward of the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. Manufacturers of industrial machinery, Peter Brotherhood Limited, relocated here from London in 1906.
Paston is a residential area and electoral ward of the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. The area was mainly built and developed in the 1970s and 1980s. Before the development corporation acquired Paston Ridings in 1974, by use of Section 22 of the Commons Act 1899, everyone had right of access to the common land comprising approximately 20 acres (8 ha).
Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires".
Crowland Abbey in Lincolnshire was garrisoned by Royalists in 1642, the first year of the Civil War. Captain Stiles was the first governor. At Oliver Cromwell's request he was imprisoned in Colchester Castle after the abbey was captured by Parliamentary forces under Cromwell's command in 1643.
Crowland Abbey is a Church of England parish church, formerly part of a Benedictine abbey church, in Crowland in the English county of Lincolnshire. It is a Grade I listed building.
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards (18 m), England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.
In September 1644 (after 18 months' imprisonment), Styles was exchanged for Captain Henry Fines (alias Clinton), on the condition that Styles was to travel to Peterborough and from there to Belvoir Castle. At Belvoir, Styles took command of a troop of horse. Not long after his arrival his troop took part in an operation to relieve the garrison at Croyland, but it failed because of Parliamentary forces under the command of Charles Fleetwood and Thomas Fairfax. Styles held the command until the end of the First Civil War. The general surrender in his region of England followed the garrison of Newark's surrender on 6 May 1646 at the behest of Charles I (after his journey to the Scottish army encamped besieging Newark).
Charles Fleetwood was an English Parliamentarian soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1652–1655, where he enforced the Cromwellian Settlement. Named Cromwell's Lieutenant General for the Third English Civil War, Fleetwood was thereafter one of his loyalest supporters throughout the Protectorate. After the Lord Protector's death, Fleetwood was initially supportive of his brother-in-law Richard Cromwell, but turned against him and forced him from power. Together with his colleague John Lambert he dominated government for a little over a year before being outmaneuvered by George Monck. At the Restoration he was included in the Act of Indemnity as among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust. His public career then closed.
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, also known as Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was an English nobleman, peer, politician, general, and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talented commander, Fairfax led Parliament to many victories, notably the crucial Battle of Naseby, becoming effectively military ruler of England, but was eventually overshadowed by his subordinate Oliver Cromwell, who was more politically adept and radical in action against Charles I. Fairfax became unhappy with Cromwell's policy and publicly refused to take part in Charles's show trial. Eventually he resigned, leaving Cromwell to control the country. Because of this, and also his honourable battlefield conduct and his active role in the Restoration of the monarchy after Cromwell's death, he was exempted from the retribution exacted on many other leaders of the revolution. His dark hair and eyes and a swarthy complexion earned him the nickname "Black Tom".
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War. "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, and includes the Second English Civil War (1648–1649) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651). The wars in England were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being fought contemporaneously with equivalents in Scotland and Ireland. Many castles and high-status homes such as Lathom House were slighted during or after the conflict.
After the end of the First Civil War the estate belonging to Styles was sequestrated and he had to compound to get them back. In 1655—a time of tension (see Penruddock uprising)—Stiles had to provide a bond of £1,000 for his good conduct.
In 1643, near the start of the English Civil War, Parliament set up two committees the Sequestration Committee which confiscated the estates of the Royalists who fought against Parliament, and the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents which allowed Royalists whose estates had been sequestrated, to compound for their estates — pay a fine and recover their estates — if they pledged not to take up arms against Parliament again. The size of the fine they had to pay depended on the worth of the estate and how great their support for the Royalist cause had been.
Compounding is a legal procedure whereby a criminal or delinquent avoids prosecution in a court of law, potentially leading to the confiscation of his estate or some other punishment, in exchange for his payment to the authorities of a financial penalty or fine. The agreement so reached is termed a composition. The term is from the Latin verb compono, "I put together, join". In general legal terminology a "composition" is "an agreement not to prosecute in return for a consideration". It was commonly used by the victorious Parliamentarians against the Royalists after the English Civil War, for which purpose the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents was established in 1643. Another historical agreement was the Ausgleich, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, or Composition of 1867.
The Penruddock uprising was one of a series of coordinated uprisings planned by the Sealed Knot for a Royalist insurrection to start in March 1655 during the Protectorate of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.
In 1662 (after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660), Styles petitioned the Commissioners for the relief of loyal and indigent officers.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II. This followed the Interregnum, also called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Stiles married Lucy.
The Ironsides were troopers in the Parliamentarian cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century, during the English Civil War. The name came from "Old Ironsides", one of Cromwell's nicknames.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War, took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms – a series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. The war in Ireland began with a rebellion in 1641 by Irish Catholics, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. This developed into an ethnic conflict between Gaelic Irish and old English Catholics on one side, and English and Scottish Protestant colonists on the other. Catholic leaders formed the Irish Catholic Confederation in 1642, which controlled most of Ireland and was loosely aligned with the Royalists. The Confederates and Royalists fought against the English Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters. In 1649, a Parliamentarian army led by Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and by 1653 had conquered the island.
David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark was a cavalry officer. He fought for the Swedish army of Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years' War. He had entered Swedish service in 1630, serving as a captain in the regiment of Alexander Leslie. He returned to Scotland just before the end of the Bishops' War, and participated the English Civil War and Scottish Civil Wars.
This is a timeline of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the English Civil Wars.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War, which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651), all of which were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Battle of Winceby took place on 11 October 1643 during the English Civil War near the village of Winceby, Lincolnshire about 4 miles (6 km) east of Horncastle.
Henry Hastings, 1st Baron Loughborough was an English Royalist army commander in the Midlands during the English Civil War.
Sir Henry Slingsby of Scriven, 1st Baronet was a Yorkshire landowner, politician and soldier who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1625 and 1642. He was executed for his adherence to the Royalist cause during the English Civil War.
The unsuccessful second Siege of Hull by the Royalist Earl of Newcastle in 1643 was a victory for Parliament at the high point of the Royalist campaign in the First English Civil War. It led to the abandonment of Newcastle's campaign in Lincolnshire and the re-establishment of Parliament's presence in Yorkshire.
1646 was the fifth and final year of the First English Civil War. By the beginning of 1646 military victory for the Parliamentary forces was in sight. A Royalist army was defeated in the field at the Battle of Torrington on 16 February and the last Royalist field army was defeated at the Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold on 21 March. From then on the New Model Army mopped up the remaining Royalist strongholds. The politics moved into a post war phase with all major the factions in England and Scotland, trying to reach an accommodation with King Charles I that would further their own particular interests.
Charles Cavendish (1620–1643) was an English royalist general, killed at the battle of Gainsborough.
Sir William Savile, 3rd Baronet of Thornhill was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1642. He fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War and was killed in action.
The Battle of Burton Bridge was fought between Royalist and Parliamentarian forces at Burton upon Trent on 4 July 1643 during the First English Civil War. By the time of the battle the town, which had at various times been held by both sides, was garrisoned by a Parliamentarian unit under the command of Captain Thomas Sanders and the town's military governor, Colonel Richard Houghton. The key river crossing at Burton was desired by Queen Henrietta Maria, who was proceeding southwards from Yorkshire with a convoy of supplies destined for King Charles I at Oxford. The Royalists, led by Colonel Thomas Tyldesley, launched a cavalry charge across the bridge which succeeded in defeating the Parliamentarians and capturing most of their officers, including Sanders and Houghton. The Queen's convoy proceeded on its way south to Oxford with Tyldesley receiving a knighthood and a promotion in recognition of his victory. Burton changed hands several more times during the course of the war, before finally coming into Parliament's control in 1646.
This is a timeline for the English Civil War in Shropshire.
The Siege of Chester was a siege of the First English Civil War, between February 1645 and January 1646, with an intermission during the summer of 1645.
John Henderson (1605–1650), 5th of Fordell was born 3 November 1605 in Fordel, Fife He was a distinguished soldier, taken prisoner when commanding at the African Coast, ransomed, and later fought on the side of the Royalists in the Civil War when Henderson was invested as a Knight by King Charles I.
Sir John Owen of Clenennau (1600–1666) was a Welsh Royalist officer during the English Civil War, who was described as "a plain gentleman who would always obey the orders of the King". He was a wealthy landowner in Carnarvonshire, having inherited large estates through both his parents Married to Janet Vaughan of Corsygedol Merionenthshire, he was appointed High Sheriff of Carnarvonshire in 1631, and Merionethshire the following year.
Colonel John Cockburn was an officer in the Scottish Covenanter army in the late 1640s and early 1650s during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In this capacity he led Lowland soldiers against Montrose's Scottish Royalist forces during the First English Civil War (1642-1646), when the Covenanter parliament of Scotland was allied with the English Parliamentarians against King Charles I. Colonel Cockburn led the colorfully defiant but futile Scottish resistance at Hume Castle during the Third English Civil War (1649-1651), when a Parliamentary army led by Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland after its Covenenter government had made an uneasy alliance with King Charles II.