Thomas Stiles

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Thomas Stiles or Styles ( fl. 1642–1662) of Walton in the parish of Paston, Northamptonshire, was a captain in the Royalist army during the English Civil War. He was governor of Crowland in 1642–1643 and after a time as a prisoner, commander of a troop of horse based at Belvoir Castle.

Walton is a residential area and electoral ward of the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. Manufacturers of industrial machinery, Peter Brotherhood Limited, relocated here from London in 1906.

Paston, Peterborough human settlement in United Kingdom

Paston is a residential area and electoral ward of the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. The area was mainly built and developed in the 1970s and 1980s. Before the development corporation acquired Paston Ridings in 1974, by use of Section 22 of the Commons Act 1899, everyone had right of access to the common land comprising approximately 20 acres (8 ha).

Northamptonshire County of England

Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires".

Contents

Biography

Crowland Abbey in Lincolnshire was garrisoned by Royalists in 1642, the first year of the Civil War. Captain Stiles was the first governor. At Oliver Cromwell's request he was imprisoned in Colchester Castle after the abbey was captured by Parliamentary forces under Cromwell's command in 1643. [1]

Crowland Abbey Church

Crowland Abbey is a Church of England parish church, formerly part of a Benedictine abbey church, in Crowland in the English county of Lincolnshire. It is a Grade I listed building.

Lincolnshire County of England

Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards (18 m), England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.

Oliver Cromwell 17th-century English military and political leader

Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.

In September 1644 (after 18 months' imprisonment), Styles was exchanged for Captain Henry Fines (alias Clinton), on the condition that Styles was to travel to Peterborough and from there to Belvoir Castle. At Belvoir, Styles took command of a troop of horse. Not long after his arrival his troop took part in an operation to relieve the garrison at Croyland, but it failed because of Parliamentary forces under the command of Charles Fleetwood and Thomas Fairfax. Styles held the command until the end of the First Civil War. The general surrender in his region of England followed the garrison of Newark's surrender on 6 May 1646 at the behest of Charles I (after his journey to the Scottish army encamped besieging Newark). [1]

Charles Fleetwood English Parliamentarian soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland

Charles Fleetwood was an English Parliamentarian soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1652–1655, where he enforced the Cromwellian Settlement. Named Cromwell's Lieutenant General for the Third English Civil War, Fleetwood was thereafter one of his loyalest supporters throughout the Protectorate. After the Lord Protector's death, Fleetwood was initially supportive of his brother-in-law Richard Cromwell, but turned against him and forced him from power. Together with his colleague John Lambert he dominated government for a little over a year before being outmaneuvered by George Monck. At the Restoration he was included in the Act of Indemnity as among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust. His public career then closed.

Thomas Fairfax Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War

Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, also known as Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was an English nobleman, peer, politician, general, and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talented commander, Fairfax led Parliament to many victories, notably the crucial Battle of Naseby, becoming effectively military ruler of England, but was eventually overshadowed by his subordinate Oliver Cromwell, who was more politically adept and radical in action against Charles I. Fairfax became unhappy with Cromwell's policy and publicly refused to take part in Charles's show trial. Eventually he resigned, leaving Cromwell to control the country. Because of this, and also his honourable battlefield conduct and his active role in the Restoration of the monarchy after Cromwell's death, he was exempted from the retribution exacted on many other leaders of the revolution. His dark hair and eyes and a swarthy complexion earned him the nickname "Black Tom".

First English Civil War Civil war in England 1642–1646

The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War. "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, and includes the Second English Civil War (1648–1649) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651). The wars in England were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being fought contemporaneously with equivalents in Scotland and Ireland. Many castles and high-status homes such as Lathom House were slighted during or after the conflict.

After the end of the First Civil War the estate belonging to Styles was sequestrated and he had to compound to get them back. In 1655—a time of tension (see Penruddock uprising)—Stiles had to provide a bond of £1,000 for his good conduct. [1]

In 1643, near the start of the English Civil War, Parliament set up two committees the Sequestration Committee which confiscated the estates of the Royalists who fought against Parliament, and the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents which allowed Royalists whose estates had been sequestrated, to compound for their estates — pay a fine and recover their estates — if they pledged not to take up arms against Parliament again. The size of the fine they had to pay depended on the worth of the estate and how great their support for the Royalist cause had been.

Compounding is a legal procedure whereby a criminal or delinquent avoids prosecution in a court of law, potentially leading to the confiscation of his estate or some other punishment, in exchange for his payment to the authorities of a financial penalty or fine. The agreement so reached is termed a composition. The term is from the Latin verb compono, "I put together, join". In general legal terminology a "composition" is "an agreement not to prosecute in return for a consideration". It was commonly used by the victorious Parliamentarians against the Royalists after the English Civil War, for which purpose the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents was established in 1643. Another historical agreement was the Ausgleich, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, or Composition of 1867.

The Penruddock uprising was one of a series of coordinated uprisings planned by the Sealed Knot for a Royalist insurrection to start in March 1655 during the Protectorate of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.

In 1662 (after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660), Styles petitioned the Commissioners for the relief of loyal and indigent officers. [1]

Restoration (England) 1660 restoration of the English monarchy

The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II. This followed the Interregnum, also called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

Family

Stiles married Lucy. [1]

Notes

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