|Member of the Maryland Senate
Charles County,Province of Maryland,British America
|October 5,1787 43–44) (aged
|Thomas Stone National Historic Site
| Michael Stone (brother)
John Hoskins Stone (brother)
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (uncle)
|Signer of the United States Declaration of Independence
Thomas Stone (1743 –October 5,1787) was an American Founding Father,planter,politician,and lawyer who signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for Maryland. He later worked on the committee that formed the Articles of Confederation in 1777. He acted as president of Congress for a short time in 1784.Stone was a member of the Maryland Senate from 1777 to 1780 and again from 1781 to 1787.
Stone was born into a prominent family at Poynton Manor in Charles County,Maryland. He was the second son in the large family of David (1709–1773) and Elizabeth Jenifer Stone. His brothers,Michael Jenifer Stone and John Hoskins Stone,were also prominent in politics.His uncle was Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer. Thomas read law at the office of Thomas Johnson in Annapolis,was admitted to the bar in 1764,and opened a practice in Frederick,Maryland. The Jenifer family was of Swedish origin.
As the American Revolution neared,Stone joined the committee of correspondence for Charles County. From 1774 to 1776,he was a member of Maryland's Annapolis Convention. In 1775,the convention sent Stone as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was re-elected and attended regularly for several years. On May 15,1776,he voted in favor of drafting a declaration of independence,in spite of restrictions from the Maryland convention that prevented their delegates from supporting it. In June the restriction was lifted,so Maryland's delegates were free to vote for Independence. Previously,Stone had been in favor of opening diplomatic relations with Great Britain and not going to war,as he was not only a pacifist but a conservative reluctant to start a gruesome war.
That same year Stone was assigned to the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation,and he was struck with a personal tragedy. His wife Margaret visited him in Philadelphia,which was in the midst of a smallpox epidemic. She was inoculated for the disease,but an adverse reaction to the treatment made her ill. Her health continued to decline for the rest of her life.After Stone signed the Declaration of Independence,he took his wife home and declined future appointment to the Congress,except for part of 1784,when the meetings were at Annapolis.
Stone accepted election to the Maryland Senate from 1779 until 1785,at first in order to promote the Articles of Confederation,which Maryland was the last state to approve. But he gave up the practice of law to care for his wife and children. As her health continued to decline,he gradually withdrew from public life. When Margaret died in 1787,he became depressed and died less than four months later in Alexandria,Virginia,reportedly of a "broken heart".
Stone was buried at his plantation home,which still stands. After his death,the plantation remained in the family for five generations until 1936 when it sold privately. In 1977 the main structure was severely damaged by fire. The National Park Service purchased the property and restored it to its original plans. Habredeventure today is the centerpiece of the Thomas Stone National Historic Site and is operated as a museum by the National Park Service.
In 1768,Stone married Margaret Brown (1751–1787),the younger sister of Gustavus R. Brown (see Rose Hill),thought to be the richest man in the county. Soon after,Stone purchased his first 400 acres (1.6 km2) and began the construction of his estate named Habre de Venture. The family made their home there,and they had three children:Margaret (1771–1809),Mildred (1773–1837) and Fredrik (1774–1793). Stone's law practice kept him away from home,so he brought in his younger brother Michael to manage development of the plantation, which utilized slaves for generations.
The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies, with some executive function, for the thirteen colonies of Great Britain in North America, and the newly declared United States before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress refers to both the First and Second Congresses of 1774–1781 and at the time, also described the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789. The Confederation Congress operated as the first federal government until being replaced following ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The Congress met predominantly at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, though it was relocated temporarily on several occasions during the Revolutionary War and the fall of Philadelphia.
Charles Carroll, known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III, was an Irish-American politician, planter, and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was the only Catholic signatory of the Declaration and the longest surviving, dying 56 years after its signing.
Francis Lightfoot Lee was a Founding Father of the United States and a member of the House of Burgesses in the Colony of Virginia. As an active protester regarding issues such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Lee helped move the colony in the direction of independence from Britain. Lee was a delegate to the Virginia Conventions and the Continental Congress. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation as a representative of Virginia. In addition to his career in politics, Lee owned a tobacco plantation as well as many slaves. He was a member of the Lee family, a prominent Virginian dynasty.
Thomas Lynch Jr. was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of South Carolina and a Founding Father of the United States. His father was a member of the Continental Congress who had signed the 1774 Continental Association, and when he stepped down because of illness Lynch Jr. was selected to fill his post.
Thomas Nelson Jr. was a Founding Father of the United States, general in the Revolutionary War, member of the Continental Congress, and a Virginia planter. In addition to serving many terms in the Virginia General Assembly, he twice represented Virginia in the Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Fellow Virginia legislators elected him to serve as the commonwealth's governor in 1781, the same year he fought as a brigadier general in the siege of Yorktown, the final battle of the war.
Matthew Tilghman was an American planter, and Revolutionary leader from Maryland. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776, where he signed the 1774 Continental Association.
The United States Constitution has served as the supreme law of the United States since taking effect in 1789. The document was written at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention and was ratified through a series of state conventions held in 1787 and 1788. Since 1789, the Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times; particularly important amendments include the ten amendments of the United States Bill of Rights and the three Reconstruction Amendments.
Gunning Bedford Jr. was an American Founding Father, delegate to the Congress of the Confederation, Attorney General of Delaware, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 which drafted the United States Constitution, a signer of the United States Constitution, and a United States district judge of the United States District Court for the District of Delaware.
Daniel Carroll was an American politician and plantation owner from Maryland and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He supported the American Revolution, served in the Confederation Congress, was a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 which penned the Constitution of the United States, and was a U.S. Representative in the First Congress. Carroll was one of five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. He was one of the few Roman Catholics among the Founders.
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer was an American politician and Founding Father who was one of the signers of the Constitution of the United States. He was active for many years in the Province of Maryland's colonial government, but when conflict arose with Great Britain, Jenifer embraced the Patriot cause.
Thomas Sim Lee was an American planter, patriot and politician who served as Maryland Governor for five one-year terms, as well as in the Congress of the Confederation (1783-84), Maryland Ratification Convention of 1788 and House of Delegates in 1787. He also held local offices and owned many town lots in Georgetown (which became part of the new federal city, Washington, District of Columbia,and spent his final decades operating "Needwood" plantation in Frederick County, Maryland. In addition to working closely with many of the Founding fathers, he played an important part in the birth of his state and the nation.
William Stone was an English-born merchant, planter and colonial administrator who served as the proprietary governor of Maryland from 1649 to 1655.
Michael Jenifer Stone was an American planter and statesman from Charles County, Maryland. He represented Maryland in the United States House of Representatives.
John Hoskins Stone was an American planter, soldier, and politician from Charles County, Maryland. During the Revolutionary War he led the 1st Maryland Regiment of the Continental Army. After the war he served in the state legislature and was the ninth governor from 1794 to 1797.
The drafting of the Constitution of the United States began on May 25, 1787, when the Constitutional Convention met for the first time with a quorum at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to revise the Articles of Confederation. It ended on September 17, 1787, the day the Frame of Government drafted by the convention's delegates to replace the Articles was adopted and signed. The ratification process for the Constitution began that day, and ended when the final state, Rhode Island, ratified it on May 29, 1790.
The Mount Vernon Conference was a meeting of delegates from Virginia and Maryland held March 21–28, 1785, to discuss navigational rights in the states' common waterways. On March 28, 1785, the group drew up a thirteen-point proposal to govern the rights of both states on the Potomac River, Pocomoke River, and Chesapeake Bay. Known as the Mount Vernon Compact and formally titled as the Compact of 1785, this agreement not only covered tidewater navigation but also extended to issues such as toll duties, commerce regulations, fishing rights, and debt collection. Ratified by the legislature of both states, the compact helped set a precedent for later meetings between states for discussions into areas of mutual concern.
William Paca was a Founding Father of the United States who was a signatory to the Continental Association and the United States Declaration of Independence. He was a Maryland delegate to the First Continental Congress and the Second Continental Congress, governor of Maryland, and a district judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland.
Walter Dulany was a politician in Colonial Maryland, who was mayor of Annapolis from 1766 to 1767. His family house and land at Windmill Point later became the location for the United States Naval Academy.
The Signing of the United States Constitution occurred on September 17, 1787, at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention, representing 12 states, endorsed the Constitution created during the four-month-long convention. In addition to signatures, this endorsement, the Constitution's closing protocol, included a brief declaration that the delegates' work has been successfully completed and that those whose signatures appear on it subscribe to the final document. Included are, a statement pronouncing the document's adoption by the states present, a formulaic dating of its adoption, along with the signatures of those endorsing it. Additionally, the convention's secretary, William Jackson, added a note to verify four amendments made by hand to the final document, and signed the note to authenticate its validity.