|Member of the Maryland Senate|
Charles County,Province of Maryland,British America
|Died||October 5,1787 43–44) (aged|
|Resting place||Thomas Stone National Historic Site|
|Relations|| Michael Stone (brother)|
John Hoskins Stone (brother)
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (uncle)
|Known for||Signer of the United States Declaration of Independence|
Thomas Stone (1743 –October 5,1787) was an American Founding Father,planter,politician,and lawyer who signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for Maryland. He later worked on the committee that formed the Articles of Confederation in 1777. He acted as president of Congress for a short time in 1784.Stone was a member of the Maryland Senate from 1777 to 1780 and again from 1781 to 1787.
Stone was born into a prominent family at Poynton Manor in Charles County,Maryland. He was the second son in the large family of David (1709–1773) and Elizabeth Jenifer Stone. His brothers,Michael Jenifer Stone and John Hoskins Stone,were also prominent in politics.His uncle was Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer. Thomas read law at the office of Thomas Johnson in Annapolis,was admitted to the bar in 1764,and opened a practice in Frederick,Maryland.
As the American Revolution neared,Stone joined the committee of correspondence for Charles County. From 1774 to 1776,he was a member of Maryland's Annapolis Convention. In 1775,the convention sent Stone as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was re-elected and attended regularly for several years. On May 15,1776,he voted in favor of drafting a declaration of independence,in spite of restrictions from the Maryland convention that prevented their delegates from supporting it. In June the restriction was lifted,so Maryland's delegates were free to vote for Independence. Previously,Stone had been in favor of opening diplomatic relations with Great Britain and not going to war,as he was not only a pacifist but a conservative reluctant to start a gruesome war.
That same year Stone was assigned to the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation,and he was struck with a personal tragedy. His wife Margaret visited him in Philadelphia,which was in the midst of a smallpox epidemic. She was inoculated for the disease,but an adverse reaction to the treatment made her ill. Her health continued to decline for the rest of her life.After Stone signed the Declaration of Independence,he took his wife home and declined future appointment to the Congress,except for part of 1784,when the meetings were at Annapolis.
Stone accepted election to the Maryland Senate from 1779 until 1785,at first in order to promote the Articles of Confederation,which Maryland was the last state to approve. But he gave up the practice of law to care for his wife and children. As her health continued to decline,he gradually withdrew from public life. When Margaret died in 1787,he became depressed and died less than four months later in Alexandria,Virginia,reportedly of a "broken heart".
Stone was buried at his plantation home,which still stands. After his death,the plantation remained in the family for five generations until 1936 when it sold privately. In 1977 the main structure was severely damaged by fire. The National Park Service purchased the property and restored it to its original plans. Habredeventure today is the centerpiece of the Thomas Stone National Historic Site and is operated as a museum by the National Park Service.
In 1768,Stone married Margaret Brown (1751–1787),the younger sister of Gustavus R. Brown (see Rose Hill),thought to be the richest man in the county. Soon after,Stone purchased his first 400 acres (1.6 km2) and began the construction of his estate named Habre de Venture. The family made their home there,and they had three children:Margaret (1771–1809),Mildred (1773–1837) and Fredrik (1774–1793). Stone's law practice kept him away from home,so he brought in his younger brother Michael to manage development of the plantation, which utilized slaves for generations.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Founding Fathers of the United States .|
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first frame of government. It was approved after much debate by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after ratification by all the states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to establish and preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The weak central government established by the Articles received only those powers which the former colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.
The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies, with some executive function, for thirteen of Britain's colonies in North America, and the newly declared United States just before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War. The term "Continental Congress" most specifically refers to the First and Second Congresses of 1774–1781 and, at the time, was also used to refer to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, which operated as the first national government of the United States until being replaced under the Constitution of the United States. Thus, the term covers the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the new United States that met between 1774 and 1789.
Charles Carroll, known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III, was an Irish-American politician, planter, slaveholder, and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was the only Catholic signatory and the last surviving signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying 56 years after signing the document.
Francis Lightfoot Lee was a Founding Father of the United States and a member of the House of Burgesses in the Colony of Virginia. As an active protester regarding issues such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Lee helped move the colony in the direction of independence from Britain. Lee was a delegate to the Virginia Conventions and the Continental Congress. He was a signer of the Articles of Confederation and the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Virginia. In addition to his career in politics, Lee owned a tobacco plantation as well as many slaves. He was a member of the Lee family, a prominent Virginian dynasty whose members accumulated their wealth and power through plantation slavery.
Thomas Lynch Jr. was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of South Carolina and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. His father was a member of the Continental Congress but stepped down because of illness, and Lynch Jr. stepped into his father's post.
George Read was a politician from New Castle in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, president of Delaware, and a member of the Federalist Party, who served as U.S. Senator from Delaware and Chief Justice of Delaware.
Charles Carroll was an American statesman from Annapolis, Maryland. He was the builder of the Baltimore Colonial home Mount Clare (1760), and a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1776 and 1777.
Matthew Tilghman was an American Founding Father, planter, and Revolutionary leader from Maryland. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776, where he signed the 1774 Continental Association.
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary leaders who united the Thirteen Colonies, led the war for independence from Great Britain, and built a frame of government for the new United States of America upon classical liberalism and republican principles during the later decades of the 18th century.
Daniel Carroll was an American politician and plantation owner from Maryland and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He supported the American Revolution, served in the Confederation Congress, was a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 which penned the Constitution of the United States, and was a U.S. Representative in the First Congress. Carroll was one of five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. He was one of the few Roman Catholics among the Founders.
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer was a politician, a Founding Father of the United States, and a signer of the United States Constitution. He was a leader for many years in Maryland's colonial government, but when conflict arose with Great Britain Jenifer embraced the Patriot cause.
Thomas Sim Lee was an American planter and statesman of Frederick County, Maryland. Although not a signatory to the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation or the US Constitution, he was an important participant in the process of their creation. Thomas Sim Lee was the second State Governor of Maryland, serving twice, from 1779 to 1783 and again from 1792 to 1794. Thomas Sim Lee also served as a delegate of Maryland in the Congress of the Confederation in 1783 and was a member of the House of Delegates in 1787. He worked closely with many of the Founding fathers and himself played an important part in the birth of his state and the nation.
William Stone, 3rd Proprietary Governor of Province of Maryland was an early, English settler in Maryland. He was governor of the colony of Maryland from 1649 to 1655.
Michael Jenifer Stone was an American planter and statesman from Charles County, Maryland. He represented Maryland in the United States House of Representatives.
John Hoskins Stone was an American planter, soldier, and politician from Charles County, Maryland. During the Revolutionary War he led the 1st Maryland Regiment of the Continental Army. After the war he served in the state legislature and was the seventh Governor from 1794 to 1797.
The Peggy Stewart House, also known as the Rutland-Jenifer-Stone House, is a Georgian style house in Annapolis, Maryland. Built between 1761 and 1764 by Thomas Rutland as a rental property, it was owned at various times by Thomas Stone and Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer. In October 1774 it was owned by Anthony Stewart, owner of the ship Peggy Stewart. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 for its associations with the burning of Anthony Stewart's ship, Peggy Stewart, as well as for its architectural significance as a mid- to late 18th century Georgian mansion. Furthermore, the dwelling was recognized as a National Historic Landmark for its associations with Jenifer and Stone, and for the thematic representation of politics and diplomacy during the American Revolution
William Paca was a Founding Father of the United States who was a signatory to the Continental Association and the United States Declaration of Independence. He was a Maryland delegate to the First Continental Congress and the Second Continental Congress, governor of Maryland, and a district judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland.
Then Province of Maryland had been a British / English colony since 1632, when Sir George Calvert, first Baron of Baltimore and Lord Baltimore (1579-1632), received a charter and grant from King Charles I of England and first created a haven for English Roman Catholics in the New World, with his son, Cecilius Calvert (1605-1675), the second Lord Baltimore equipping and sending over the first colonists to the Chesapeake Bay region in March 1634. The first signs of rebellion against the mother country occurred in 1765, when the tax collector Zachariah Hood was injured while landing at the second provincial capital of Annapolis docks, arguably the first violent resistance to British taxation in the colonies. After a decade of bitter argument and internal discord, Maryland declared itself a sovereign state in 1776. The province was one of the Thirteen Colonies of British America to declare independence from Great Britain and joined the others in signing a collective Declaration of Independence that summer in the Second Continental Congress in nearby Philadelphia. Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton signed on Maryland's behalf.
The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence occurred primarily on August 2, 1776, at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, later to become known as Independence Hall. The 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress represented the 13 colonies, 12 of which voted to approve the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The New York delegation abstained because they had not yet received instructions from Albany to vote for independence. The Declaration proclaimed the signatory colonies were now "free and independent States," no longer colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain and, thus, no longer a part of the British Empire. The signers’ names are grouped by state, with the exception of John Hancock, as President of the Continental Congress; the states are arranged geographically from south to north, with Button Gwinnett from Georgia first, and Matthew Thornton from New Hampshire last.