|2nd Fire Commissioner of the City of New York|
|Appointed by||Seth Low|
|Preceded by||John J. Scannell|
|Succeeded by||Nicholas J. Hayes|
|Member of the Wyoming Terriorial Senate|
|Born||April 6, 1846|
Manhattan, New York
|Died||February 25, 1914 67) (aged|
Thomas Sturgis (April 6 or 30, 1846 - February 25, 1914) was a businessman, soldier and financier. He was appointed the second New York City Fire Commissioner by Mayor Seth Low on January 1, 1902 and served in that position until the end of the Low Administration on December 31, 1903. Prior to this he served as a fire commissioner under William Lafayette Strong, replacing Austin E. Ford.Sturgis was also developer of Cheyenne, Wyoming, and financier. In the Pacific Historical Review , Gene M. Gressley wrote that Sturgis was "one of the few young easterners who came west in search of a fortune and stayed long enough to become one of the most respected men in the cattle industry."
The New York City Fire Commissioner is the civilian administrator of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY), appointed by the Mayor of the City of New York. There have been 32 commissioners excluding Acting Fire Commissioners, and 38 commissioners including Acting Fire Commissioners. This is since Manhattan and the Bronx consolidated with Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island to form The City of New York in 1898. The current Fire Commissioner is Daniel A. Nigro, who has held the office since June 7, 2014. The term of office is January 1 to December 31 unless the commissioner is removed from office by the mayor, dies in office, or resigns.
Seth Low was an American educator and political figure who served as mayor of Brooklyn, President of Columbia University, diplomatic representative of the United States, and was the 92nd Mayor of New York City. He was a leading municipal reformer fighting for efficiency during the Progressive Era.
William Lafayette Strong was the 90th Mayor of New York City from 1895 to 1897. He was the last mayor of New York City before the consolidation of the City of Greater New York on January 1, 1898.
Thomas Sturgis was born on April 6 or 30, 1846, to Wiliam and Elizabeth Sturgis,in New York City. He attended New York City public schools, including Grammar School No. 40. When he was 16, Sturgis began working as a clerk at a wholesale dry goods house.
Dry goods is a historic term describing the type of product line a store carries, which differs by region. The term comes from the textile trade, and the shops appear to have spread with the mercantile trade across the British colonial territories as a means of bringing supplies and manufactured goods to far-flung settlements and homesteads that were spreading globally. Starting in the mid-1700s, these stores began by selling supplies and textile goods to remote communities, and many customized the products they carried to the area's needs. This continued to be the trend well into the early 1900s. With the rise of department stores and catalog sales, the decline of dry goods stores began, and the term has largely fallen out of use.
Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, Sturgis joined the twenty-second regiment of the New York State Militia. When he turned 18 in 1864, Sturgis enlisted in the Sixtieth Massachusetts Regiment, commissioned as a first lieutenant and adjutant of the Sixtieth regiment. Sturgis served as post-adjutant of a prisoner-of-war camp near Camp Morton in Indiana in the summer and fall of 1864. After the Sixtieth was mustered out, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Fifty-seventh, serving in various capacities as an aide-de-camp and an assistant adjutant general at the army camp, rising to be assistant adjutant general of the First Division of the Ninth Army Corps, attached to the Army of the Potomac. At the Battle of Fort Stedman (March 25, 1865), Sturgis was taken prisoner, held in Libby Prison, and exchanged, 338 serving until the end of the war in 1865.:
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.
After the conclusion of the war, Sturgis briefly studied law,before moving to west to Neosho in Southwest Missouri in spring 1868. He managed several farms, and worked as a general land agent for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, and negotiated with Native Americans on behalf of then Governor of Missouri Thomas Clement Fletcher, gaining right of way to build a railroad on the 35th parallel. Sturgis moved to Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1878 and was involved in banking, railroads and stockraising, spending fifteen years in the city. Sturgis became the leader of the Republican Party in Wyoming. He married Helen Rutgers Weir, daughter of Robert Walter Weir, on June 9, 1880. Sturgis organized and served as president of the Stockgrowers National Bank in Cheyenne. He was involved in the founding of and served as president of the Cheyenne and Northern Railway. He was secretary of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association for 14 years, and secretary of the National Cattle Growers Association. He was elected to the Wyoming Territorial Senate and chairman of the Republican Central Committee of the Territory while in Cheyenne, serving from 1882 to 1883.
Neosho is the most populous city in Newton County, Missouri, United States, which it serves as the county seat. With a population of 11,835 as of the 2010 census, the city is a part of the Joplin, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region with an estimated 176,849 (2011) residents. Neosho lies on the western edge of the Ozarks.
The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was a U.S. railroad that owned or operated two disjointed segments, one connecting St. Louis, Missouri with Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the other connecting Albuquerque, New Mexico with Southern California. It was incorporated by the U.S. Congress in 1866 as a transcontinental railroad connecting Springfield, Missouri and Van Buren, Arkansas with California. The central portion was never constructed, and the two halves later became parts of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway systems, now both merged into the BNSF Railway.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".
Sturgis returned to New York City in 1887 or 1888,opening a building company, Sturgis & Hill. Sturgis soon became prominent in New York City business, owning stock or being a director of the Consolidated Ice Company, the Knickerbocker Ice Company, the American Ice Company, the Wyoming Development Company, and the Cheyenne Gas and Electric Light Company. He became treasurer of the Union Stock Yards. He was appointed to the Civil Service Commission of New York in 1896 and was made a trustee of the Elmira Correctional Facility in 1899, being elected president of the latter's board. Sturgis served as New York City Fire Commissioner from January 1, 1902 to December 31, 1903. He died February 25, 1914 in Eastbourne, England.
The Knickerbocker Ice Company was an ice company based in New York State during the 19th century.
The American Ice Company is a historic ice manufacturing plant located at 2100 West Franklin Street in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. It is a large industrial brick building constructed in 1911 for the American Ice Company, a business that manufactured and delivered ice throughout the mid-Atlantic states. The building is two stories, with the brick laid in American bond, and is 21 bays long. Three of those bays at one end of the building are slightly projected and topped by a stepped parapet, forming the entrance area of the building.
The Union Stock Yard & Transit Co., or The Yards, was the meatpacking district in Chicago for more than a century, starting in 1865. The district was operated by a group of railroad companies that acquired marshland and turned it into a centralized processing area. By the 1890s, the railroad money behind the Union Stockyards was Vanderbilt money. The Union Stockyards operated in the New City community area for 106 years, helping Chicago become known as "hog butcher for the world" and the center of the American meatpacking industry for decades.
Robert Walter Weir was an American artist and educator and is considered a painter of the Hudson River School. Weir was elected to the National Academy of Design in 1829 and was an instructor at the United States Military Academy. His best-known work is Embarkation of the Pilgrims in the United States Capitol rotunda at Washington, D.C. More than 450 of his works are known, and he created many unsigned paintings that may never be attributed to him.
The Wyoming Military Department is part of the Government of Wyoming. Its primary components are the Wyoming Army National Guard, and the Wyoming Air National Guard.
The Rock Springs massacre, also known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The riot, and resulting massacre of immigrant Chinese miners by white immigrant miners, was the result of racial prejudice toward the Chinese miners, who were perceived to be taking jobs from the white miners. The Union Pacific Coal Department found it economically beneficial to give preference in hiring to Chinese miners, who were willing to work for lower wages than their white counterparts, angering the white miners. When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were injured. Rioters burned 78 Chinese homes, resulting in approximately US$150,000 in property damage.
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population was 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado which has a population of 4,333,742 according to the 2010 United States Census. Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek. The Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th-most populous metropolitan area in the United States.
There is evidence of prehistoric human habitation in the region known today as the U.S. state of Wyoming stretching back roughly 13,000 years. Stone projectile points associated with the Clovis, Folsom and Plano cultures have been discovered throughout Wyoming. Evidence from what is now Yellowstone National Park indicates the presence of vast continental trading networks since around 1000 years ago. The Union Pacific Railroad played a central role in the European settlement of the area. Wyoming became a U.S. territory in 1868 and became the 44th U.S. state in 1890. It was the first state to grant women the right to vote, in 1869.
Silas Titus was a military officer who fought in the American Civil War in the Union Army. He was active in the organization of the city of Syracuse, New York, and served as an alderman for two years and as a supervisor in 1865. He was influential in the construction of the first 30 miles of continuous railroad in the United States.
Austin Edward Ford was an American publisher and Fire Commissioner of New York.
William Thomas Campbell Grower was a United States Army Officer in the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865, and serving as the Major of the 17th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1861–1863) and Colonel of the 17th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1863–1865).
The Cheyenne and Northern Railway was a railroad in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The railroad was incorporated in 1886 to build a line from Cheyenne, Wyoming into northern Wyoming and Montana. The line extended 125 miles (201 km) to Wendover on the North Platte River. It was absorbed by Union Pacific Railroad subsidiary Union Pacific, Denver and Gulf Railway and later became part of the Colorado and Southern Railway when the Union Pacific went into receivership.
Wyoming Central Railway was a railroad in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The railroad was incorporated in October 1885 and built a line from Chadron, Nebraska through Douglas to Casper. The line was initially leased to the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley Railroad and the two railroads consolidated in 1891. The FE&MV was merged into Chicago and North Western Transportation Company in 1903 and the line was extended to Lander.
John Schuyler Crosby was an American military officer and government official. he was most notable for his service in the Union Army during the American Civil War. After leaving the Army, he served as United States Consul in Florence, Italy and as the fifth Governor of Montana Territory.
The Goodnight–Loving Trail was a trail used in the cattle drives of the late 1860s for the large-scale movement of Texas Longhorns. It is named after cattlemen Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving.
Fort Meade was established in 1878 to protect the new settlements in the northern Black Hills, especially the nearby gold mining area around Deadwood. Several stage and freighting routes passed through Fort Meade en route to Deadwood.
Brevet Brigadier General Lester Sebastion Willson,, was a U.S. Civil War officer in the Union Army, Assistant Quartermaster General of New York, and a Montana merchant and politician in Bozeman, Montana. He was married at Albany, New York, on March 2, 1869, to Miss Emma D. Weeks, a native of Vermont. He died in Bozeman, Montana on January 26, 1919.
The William Sturgis House was built by cattle baron William Sturgis in Cheyenne, Wyoming in 1884. The Shingle Style house was designed by architect George D. Rainsford, a New York architect who moved to Wyoming to raise Morgan horses and Clydesdales. While horse breeding was his principal occupation, Rainsford continued to practice architecture, designing many of the houses in the neighborhood surrounding the Sturgis residence.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Cheyenne, Wyoming, USA.
The Big Horn Expedition, or Bighorn Expedition, was a military operation of the United States Army against the Sioux, and Cheyenne Indians in Wyoming Territory and Montana Territory. Although soldiers destroyed one Cheyenne and Oglala Sioux village, the expedition solidified Lakota Sioux and northern Cheyenne resistance against the United States attempt to force them to sell the Black Hills and live on a reservation, beginning the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Samuel D. Sturgis Jr. was an officer in the United States Army. During World War I, he commanded the 87th and 80th Divisions.
Henry Sturgis Russell was an American military and government official who served as commander of the 5th Regiment Massachusetts Colored Volunteer Cavalry and as the first commissioner of the Boston Fire Department.
Mayor Strong yesterday announced the appointment of Thomas Sturgis as a Commissioner of the Fire Department, in place of Austin E. Ford, who died Sept. 17. Mr. Sturgis, accompanied by his wife, went to the Mayor's office at 11 o'clock. After the usual preliminaries Mr. Sturgis took the oath of office and received his commission.
John J. Scannell
| FDNY Commissioner |
Nicholas J. Hayes