Thomas Sumter

Last updated
Thomas Sumter
Portrait by Rembrandt Peale (c. 1795)
United States Senator
from South Carolina
In office
December 15, 1801 December 16, 1810
Preceded by Charles Pinckney
Succeeded by John Taylor
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 4th district
In office
March 4, 1797 December 15, 1801
Preceded byRichard Winn
Succeeded byRichard Winn
In office
March 4, 1789 March 3, 1793
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded by Richard Winn
Personal details
Born(1734-08-14)August 14, 1734
Hanover County, Province of Virginia
DiedJune 1, 1832(1832-06-01) (aged 97)
near Stateburg, South Carolina
Resting placeThomas Sumter Memorial Park, Sumter County, South Carolina
Military service
AllegianceUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Great Britain (1755–1776)
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg (1776–onward)
Branch/serviceVirginia provincial militia
South Carolina state militia
Years of service Flag of Virginia (1861).svg Virginia provincial militia: 1755
Flag of Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.svg South Carolina state militia: 1776–1781
Rank US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General
Commands Flag of Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.svg Second Regiment of the South Carolina Line
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War

Thomas Sumter (August 14, 1734 – June 1, 1832) was a soldier in the Colony of Virginia militia; a brigadier general in the South Carolina militia during the American War of Independence, a planter, and a politician. After the United States gained independence, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives and to the United States Senate, where he served from 1801 to 1810, when he retired. Sumter was nicknamed the "Carolina Gamecock" for his fierce fighting style against British soldiers after they burned down his house during the Revolution.


Early life

Thomas Sumter was born in Hanover County, Province of Virginia. [1] Little is known of his parentage. [2] Given just a rudimentary education on the frontier, the young Sumter served in the Virginia militia. [1]

The Timberlake Expedition

At the end of the Anglo-Cherokee War, in 1761, Sumter was invited to join what was to become known as the "Timberlake Expedition", organized by Colonel Adam Stephen and led by Henry Timberlake, who had volunteered for the assignment. [3] :38–39 The purpose of the expedition was to visit the Overhill Cherokee towns and renew friendship with the Cherokee People following the war. [4] The small expeditionary party consisted of Sumter (who was partially financing the venture with borrowed money), Timberlake, an interpreter named John McCormack, and a servant. [3] :38

According to Timberlake's journal, at one point early in the nearly year and a half long journey, Sumter swam nearly a half-mile in the icy waters to retrieve their canoe, which had drifted away while they were exploring a cave. [3] :41–48 The party arrived in the Overhill town of Tomotley on December 20, where they were greeted by the town's head man, Ostenaco (or "Mankiller") [3] :57–58 and soon found themselves participants in a peace pipe ceremony. In the following weeks, Sumter and the group attended peace ceremonies in several Overhill towns, such as Chota, Citico, and Chilhowee. [3] :63–65

The party returned to Williamsburg, Virginia, accompanied by several Beloved Men of the Cherokee, arriving on the James River in early April 1762. [3] :118–129

While in Williamsburg, Ostenaco professed a desire to meet the king of England, [3] :130–133 and in May 1762, Sumter traveled to England with Timberlake and three distinguished Cherokee leaders, including Ostenaco. Arriving in London in early June, the Indians were an immediate attraction, drawing crowds all over the city. [5] [3] :130–136 The three Cherokee then accompanied Sumter back to America, landing in South Carolina on or about August 25, 1762. [3] :143–147

Imprisonment for debt

Plaque at the South Carolina statehouse Thomas Sumter (commemorative plaque at the South Carolina statehouse).jpg
Plaque at the South Carolina statehouse

Sumter became stranded in South Carolina due to financial difficulties. He petitioned the Virginia Colony for reimbursement of his travel expenses, but was denied. Subsequently, Sumter was imprisoned for debt in Virginia. When his friend and fellow soldier, Joseph Martin, arrived in Staunton, Martin asked to spend the night with Sumter in jail. Martin gave Sumter ten guineas and a tomahawk. Sumter used the money to buy his way out of jail in 1766. [6] :xxvii When Martin and Sumter were reunited some thirty years later, Sumter repaid the money.

Family life and business

Sumter settled in Stateburg, South Carolina, in the Claremont District (later the Sumter District) in the High Hills of Santee.

He married Mary Jameson in 1767. Together, they opened several small businesses and became successful planters.

American Revolutionary War

Statue of Thomas Sumter on the courthouse lawn in Sumter, South Carolina Thomas sumter 1352.JPG
Statue of Thomas Sumter on the courthouse lawn in Sumter, South Carolina

Sumter raised a local militia group in Stateburg. In February 1776, Sumter was elected lieutenant colonel of the Second Regiment of the South Carolina Line of which he was later appointed colonel. He subsequently was appointed brigadier general, a post he held until the end of the war. He participated in several battles in the early months of the war, including the campaign to prevent an invasion of Georgia. Perhaps his greatest military achievement was his partisan campaigning, which contributed to Lord Cornwallis' decision to abandon the Carolinas for Virginia.

Sumter acquired the nickname "Carolina Gamecock" during the American Revolution, for his fierce fighting tactics. After the Battle of Blackstock's Farm, British General Banastre Tarleton commented that Sumter "fought like a gamecock", and Cornwallis described the Gamecock as his "greatest plague". [7]

Political career

After the Revolutionary War, Sumter was elected to the United States House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1793, and from March 4, 1797, to December 15, 1801.

He later served in the United States Senate, having been selected by the legislature to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Charles Pinckney. [1] Sumter resigned from his seat in the Senate on December 16, 1810. [1]


Sumter shares a monument, erected in 1913, on the state capitol grounds in Columbia with two other Revolutionary War generals, Francis Marion and Andrew Pickens SC Revolutionary War generals monument in Columbia IMG 4797.JPG
Sumter shares a monument, erected in 1913, on the state capitol grounds in Columbia with two other Revolutionary War generals, Francis Marion and Andrew Pickens

Sumter died on June 1, 1832 at South Mount (his plantation near Stateburg), at the age of 97 years. He was buried at the Thomas Sumter Memorial Park in Sumter County. [1]


Sumter's son, Thomas Sumter Jr., served in Rio de Janeiro from 1810 to 1819 as the United States Ambassador to the Portuguese Court during its exile to Brazil. Thomas Jr.'s wife, Natalie De Lage Sumter ( née Nathalie de Lage de Volude), was a daughter of French nobility, sent by her parents to America for her safety during the French Revolution. [8] She was raised in New York City from 1794 to 1801 by Vice President Aaron Burr as his ward, alongside his own daughter Theodosia. [9] [10]

His grandson, Colonel Thomas De Lage Sumter, served in the U.S. Army during the Second Seminole War, and later represented South Carolina in the United States House of Representatives.


Gravesite of Thomas Sumter ThomasSumterGraveSite.jpg
Gravesite of Thomas Sumter

In South Carolina, the town of Sumter, South Carolina, was named for Thomas Sumter. The town has erected a memorial to him, and has been dubbed "The Gamecock City" after his nickname.

Counties in four states are named for Sumter:

Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, a fort planned after the War of 1812, was named in his honor. The fort is best known as the site upon which the shots initiating the American Civil War were fired, at the Battle of Fort Sumter.

Sumter's nickname, "Gamecock", has become one of several traditional nicknames for a native of South Carolina. For example, the University of South Carolina's official nickname is the "Fighting Gamecocks". Since 1903, the college's teams have been simply known as the "South Carolina Gamecocks".

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Stateburg Historic District United States historic place

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Siege of Fort Loudoun

The Siege of Fort Loudoun was an engagement during the Anglo-Cherokee War fought from February 1760 to August 1760 between the warriors of the Cherokee led by Ostenaco and the garrison of Fort Loudoun composed of British and colonial soldiers commanded by Captain Paul Demeré.

Timberlake Expedition 1761 peace mission into the Overhill Cherokee lands

The Timberlake Expedition was an excursion into the Overhill Cherokee lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, which took place in 1761 following the Anglo-Cherokee War. Its purpose was to renew and solidify friendship between Colonial Americans and the Cherokee People following the three-year war. The endeavor is named after the commander of the expedition, Henry Timberlake.

The Rutherford Light Horse expedition was a punitive military excursion launched against the Lower, Middle, and Overhill Cherokee settlements of the Cherokee Indians in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. This was in retaliation for the Native Indian attacks made against the European American settlements of the Watauga Association in July 1776, in an early action of the American War of Independence. The expedition, which took place on the American frontier and resulted in the destruction of six Cherokee towns, ran from October 17 until November 16, 1776. The adventure only concluded when the troop was forced to turn back due to a lack of supplies. It was led by Captain William Moore of the 2nd Rowan County Regiment, acting directly under the command of Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford.

The Treaty of Dewitts Corner ended the initial Overhill Cherokee town attacks which took place at the beginning of the American Revolution. Signed between the Cherokee and South Carolina, the treaty helped lay the foundation for the decades long Cherokee–American wars fought between the European-Americans and the Chickamauga Cherokee people.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 United States Congress. "Thomas Sumter (id: S001073)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress .
  2. "Thomas Sumter".
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Timberlake, Henry (1948). Williams, Samuel (ed.). Memoirs, 1756–1765. Marietta, Georgia: Continental Book Co.
  4. Bass, Robert (1961). Gamecock: The Life and Campaigns of General Thomas Sumter . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p.  9.
  5. St James Chronicle, July 3, 1762.
  6. Timberlake, Henry. King, Duane (ed.). The Memoirs of Lt. Henry Timberlake: The Story of a Soldier, Adventurer, and Emissary to the Cherokees, 1756–1765. UNC Press.
  7. Buchanan, John. The Road to Guilford Courthouse. p. 393.
  8. Tisdale, Thomas (2001). A Lady of the High Hills: Natalie Delage Sumter. Univ. of South Carolina Press. ISBN   978-1-57003-415-2.
  9. Schachner, Nathan (1961) [1937]. Aaron Burr: A Biography. A. S. Barnes. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018.
  10. Burr, Aaron (1837). Davis, Matthew Livingston (ed.). Memoirs of Aaron Burr: With Miscellaneous Selections from His Correspondence. New York: Harper & Brothers. p.  387 n.1.
  11. Krakow, Kenneth K. (1975). Georgia Place-Names: Their History and Origins (PDF). Macon, GA: Winship Press. p. 215. ISBN   0-915430-00-2.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
District created
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 4th congressional district

March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1793
Succeeded by
Richard Winn
Preceded by
Richard Winn
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 4th congressional district

March 4, 1797 – December 15, 1801
Succeeded by
Richard Winn
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Charles Pinckney
U.S. senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
Served alongside: John C. Colhoun, Pierce Butler, John Gaillard
Succeeded by
John Taylor
Honorary titles
Preceded by
William Johnson
Oldest living U.S. Senator
November 14, 1819 – June 1, 1832
Succeeded by
Charles Carroll