Thomas Sutcliffe Mort
Mort and his first wife, Theresa, photographed c. 1847
|Died||9 May 1878 61) (aged|
|Occupation||Industrialist; grazier; philanthropist|
|Organization||Goldsbrough Mort & Co; later to become Elders Limited|
|Known for||Responsible for improving refrigeration of meat|
Thomas Sutcliffe Mort (23 December 1816 –9 May 1878) was an Australian industrialist responsible for improving refrigeration of meat. He was renowned for speculation in the local pastoral industry as well as industrial activities such as his Ice-Works in Sydney's Darling Harbour and dry dock and engineering works at Balmain.
Refrigeration is the process of cooling a space, substance, or system to lower and/or maintain its temperature below the ambient one. In other words, refrigeration means artificial (human-made) cooling. Heat is removed from a low-temperature reservoir and transferred to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units.
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb.
Mort was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England in 1816. In 1878, he was associated with the Australian Mutual Provident Society. In 1849, he was one of a committee, which funded a company to promote sugar growing at Moreton Bay. In 1850 Mort was a member of the Sydney Exchange Co, and in 1851 he was a director of the Sydney Railway Co. and was also involved in mining (gold, later also copper and coal) and other enterprises. In the 1850s, he opened Mort's Dock in Sydney, a business that was not as successful as he wished.In 1843, he established Mort & Company, in Sydney, and held the first wool auction there, which was the beginning the wool auction system.
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the 1980s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton.
AMP is a financial services company in Australia and New Zealand providing superannuation and investment products, insurance, financial advice and banking products including home loans and savings accounts. AMP shares are included in the Australian Securities Exchange's S&P/ASX 50 index. Its headquarters are in Sydney, Australia.
Mort's Dock is a former dry dock, slipway, and shipyard in Balmain, New South Wales, Australia. It was the first dry dock in Australia, opening for business in 1855 and closing more than a century later in 1959. The site is now parkland. The surviving remnants were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 14 January 2011.
Mort returned to England for a visit in 1857–59. During that visit he bought many furnishings, pictures and other goods, in particular at a sale of the possessions of the Earl of Shrewsbury. He commissioned the architect Edmund Blacket to build a house to add to his house to display the new possessions. His gallery was open to the public.
Admiral Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 18th Earl of Shrewsbury, 18th Earl of Waterford, 3rd Earl Talbot, CB, PC, styled Viscount of Ingestre between 1826 and 1849 and known as The Earl Talbot between 1849 and 1858, was a British naval commander and Conservative politician.
Edmund Thomas Blacket was an Australian architect, best known for his designs for the University of Sydney, St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney and St. Saviour's Cathedral, Goulburn.
From 1856, Mort began acquiring land near Moruya on the south coast of New South Wales. In 1860, Mort acquired the Bodalla estate near the mouth of the Tuross River. Mort eventually owned 15,000 hectares (38,000 acres) in the district, a very substantial holding in that fertile area. Bodalla is alleged to have been originally known as 'Boat Alley'. Mort's vision for Bodalla was as a country estate to retire on and to demonstrate model land utilisation and rural settlement. Mort wished to have a tenanted dairy estate run as an integrated whole.
Moruya is a town in New South Wales, Australia, situated on the Moruya River, on the far south coast situated on the Princes Highway 305 kilometres (190 mi) south of Sydney and 175 kilometres (109 mi) from Canberra. At the 2016 census, Moruya had a population of 3982. Its built up area had a population of 2,525. The town relies predominantly on agriculture, aquaculture, and tourism. Moruya is administered by the Eurobodalla Shire council and the shire chambers are located in the town.
Bodalla is a small town on the South Coast of New South Wales, Australia, and located in the local government area of Eurobodalla Shire. The town sits on the Princes Highway, and is connected by road to Moruya, Narooma, Nerrigundah, Eurobodalla and Potato Point.
The Tuross River, an open semi-mature wave dominated barrier estuary or perennial stream, is located in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia.
Mort replaced the beef cattle that had been farmed there and carried out extensive improvements including clearing land, draining river swamps, erecting fences, laying out farms, sowing imported grasses, and providing milking sheds, cheese and butter-making equipment. Butter and cheese were produced for the Sydney market. By the 1870s, the tenants were disgruntled sharefarmers and the estate was in Mort's control again run as three farms with hired labour.
In 1866, Mort expanded his dry dock into an engineering works. Mort offered shares to his employees and in 1875, the company was incorporated with limited liability having been managed beforehand by a committee that included four leading hands. This was one of the earliest attempts at co-operation between capital and labour in Australia, and although the effort at sharing ownership was only partially successful, Mort always had good relations with his employees.
Also in the mid-1860s, Mort had been looking at refrigeration as a way of developing manufacturing orders, to ensure better access to the Sydney market for the butter and cheese he was producing at Bodalla and to offset the vulnerability of being exposed to falling wool prices. Mort financed experiments by Eugene Dominic Nicolle, a French born engineer who had arrived in Sydney in 1853 and registered his first ice-making patent in 1861.
In 1861 Mort established at Darling Harbour the first freezing works in the world, which afterwards became the New South Wales Fresh Food and Ice Company. The first trial shipment of frozen meat to London was in 1868. Although their machinery was never used in the frozen meat trade, Mort and Nicolle developed commercially viable systems for domestic trade, although the financial return on that investment was not a great success for Mort.
As a part of his refrigeration works, Mort developed a large abattoir at Lithgow where sheep and cattle from western New South Wales were slaughtered and refrigerated for later transport. In 1875, to mark his achievements in the refrigeration techniques, Mort arranged a picnic for 300 guests. He organised a special train from Sydney and fed his guests food that had been refrigerated at his plant for over 18 months.
Lithgow is a city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia and is the administrative centre of the City of Lithgow local government area. It is located in a mountain valley named Lithgow's Valley by John Oxley in honour of William Lithgow, the first Auditor-General of New South Wales.
A picnic is a meal taken outdoors as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, and usually in summer.
Mort was a prominent Anglican layman. He donated the land for St Mark's Church, Darling Point, and commissioned Edmund Blacket to design the church. Mort contributed to the upkeep of the churchand also to the building of St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney and St Paul's College, University of Sydney. He was also the founder of Christ Church School in Pitt Street, Sydney.
He died at Bodalla, on 9 May 1878.
At the time of his death he was spoken of as "the greatest benefactor the working classes in this country ever had". Within a week of Mort's death from pneumonia at Bodalla, a meeting of working men in Sydney had resolved to show the esteem and respect in which they held his memory. A sculpture in Macquarie Place by Pierce Connolly resulted from their resolution and was unveiled in 1883.
Mort is also commemorated by All Saints Church, Bodalla, built in his honour by his family, to a design by Blacket, using granite quarried on Mort's property. The foundation stone was laid by Marianne Mort, Thomas' second wife, on 18 March 1880. It was completed in 1901. The church has one of seven small Henry Willis & Sons organs, built in 1881 and installed the following year. The church cost A₤13,000 to construct.
Mort's business Mort & Co. became Mort & Co Ltd in 1883. Mort & Co Ltd merged with R Goldsbrough & Co Ltd in 1888 to form Goldsbrough Mort & Co Ltd. This firm traded from 1888–1963 when a merger formed Elder Smith Goldsbrough Mort Ltd which traded from 1963 – 1982. The present day business is Elders Limited .
The southern Sydney suburb of Mortdale and its main road, Morts Road, are named after him.
His house in Darling Point which he called Greenoaks became the home of the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney on 24 October 1910 and was renamed Bishopscourt. It was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register in 1999.
Mortdale is a suburb located in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Mortdale is located 20 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the St George area. Mortdale lies across the local government area of Georges River Council. Mortdale extends south to Lime Kiln Bay, on the Georges River. Mortdale Heights is a locality in the western corner of the suburb.
Darling Point is a harbourside eastern suburb of Sydney, Australia. It is 4 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of Woollahra Council.
Richard Goldsbrough was an English-born Australian business man, involved in the wool industry in the 19th century.
The Lithgow Zig Zag is a heritage-listed former zig zag railway line built near Lithgow on the Great Western Line of New South Wales in Australia. The zig zag line operated between 1869 and 1910, to overcome an otherwise insurmountable climb and descent on the western side of the Blue Mountains. It was designed by John Whitton and built from 1863 to 1869 by Patrick Higgins as contractor. It is also known as the Great Zig Zag Railway and Reserves and Zig Zag Railway. The property is owned by Department of Planning and Infrastructure. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Frederick York Wolseley was an Irish-born New South Wales inventor and woolgrower who invented and developed the first commercially successful sheep shearing machinery after extensive experimentation. It revolutionised the wool industry.
Frederick Earle Winchcombe (1855–1917) was an Australian businessman and politician.
The Kiama Pioneer Butter Factory was erected in 1883 and later officially opened on 18 June 1884 in Kiama, New South Wales. It is credited with being the first factory in Australia to use cream separators, a machine that would transform processing techniques in the dairy industry. The Kiama Pioneer Butter Factory was also the first factory in Australia to make a shipment of butter to Great Britain.
Bishopscourt, Darling Point is a heritage-listed residence and bishop's residence at 11A Greenoaks Avenue, Darling Point, Municipality of Woollahra, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by J. F. Hilly (1846), Edmund Blacket (1859) and Leslie Wilkinson (1935) and built from 1846 to 1849 by Thomas Woolley (1841); Thomas Sutcliffe Mort. It is also known as Bishopscourt and Greenoaks. Up until December 2015, the property was owned by the Anglican Church of Australia; and is now privately owned. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Goldsbrough Mort Woolstore is a heritage-listed warehouse at 88 Macquarie Street, Teneriffe, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was built c. 1933 by Stuart Brothers (Sydney). It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Henry Mort was a pastoralist, businessman, and politician in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. He was a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly and a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council.
Goldsbrough Mort Building is a heritage-listed warehouse at 238 Quay Street, Rockhampton, Rockhampton Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1899. It is also known as Drug Houses of Australia Ltd, Queensland Druggists Building, and Taylors Elliots & Australian Drug Ltd. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 30 January 2004.
Goldsbrough Mort & Co was an Australian agricultural business.
St Mark's Church is an active Anglican church in Darling Point, a suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is part of a significant local heritage group that includes the church, rectory, and adjacent cottage. The group forms part of a large collection of important to late 19th century buildings of considerable townscape, historic and cultural significance, including the former St Mark's Crescent School, St Mark's Cottage and Bishopscourt, formerly Greenoaks.
The All Saints' Anglican Church is a heritage-listed Anglican church located at McDonnell Street, Condobolin in the Lachlan Shire local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The church was possibly designed by Edmund Blacket and was built from 1878 to 1879 by Mr Brinsmead. It is also known as All Saints Anglican Parish Church. The property is owned by the Anglican Diocese of Bathurst. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 May 2008.
St John the Evangelist Church is a heritage-listed former Aboriginal land, squatting run, and farm village and now dual-denomination Anglican and Presbyterian church located at Main Street, Wallerawang, City of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Edmund Blacket and Blacket and Sons, and built from 1880 to 1881 by George Donald. It is also known as St. John the Evangelist Church and Church of St. John the Evangelist. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 September 2004.
The John Bridge Woolstore is a heritage-listed former warehouse located at 64 Harbour Street, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area. It was probably designed by either William Pritchard or his son Arthur Pritchard, and was built by Stuart Bros. in 1889. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
121-127 Sussex Street is a heritage-listed former warehouse and now commercial office building located at 121-127 Sussex Street, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built during 1850. The property is owned by Property NSW, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.