|Died||July 22, 2016 85) (aged|
Dr Thomas Sutherland (May 3, 1931 – July 22, 2016),Dean of Agriculture at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, was kidnapped by Islamic Jihad members near his Beirut home on June 9, 1985. He was released on November 18, 1991 at the same time as Terry Waite, having been held hostage for 2,353 days.
The American University of Beirut (AUB) is a private, non sectarian, and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. It is one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East, securing the top spot in the Arab region in the 2018 QS World University Rankings.
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia that is part of the Arab League. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.
The Islamic Jihad Organization – IJO or Organisation du Jihad Islamique (OJI) in French, but best known as "Islamic Jihad" for short, was a Shia militia known for its activities in the 1980s during the Lebanese Civil War. They demanded the departure of all Americans from Lebanon and took responsibility for a number of kidnappings, assassinations, and bombings of embassies and peacekeeping troops which killed several hundred people. Their deadliest attacks were in 1983, when they carried out the bombing of the barracks of French and U.S. MNF peacekeeping troops, and that of the United States embassy in Beirut.
Born in Falkirk, Scotland on May 3, 1931, [ citation needed ] Sutherland obtained a BSc in Agriculture from the University of Glasgow, and moved to the United States in the 1950s. He was received a master's degree and PhD in animal breeding from Iowa State University, then taught animal science at Colorado State University for 26 years. He moved to Beirut in 1983 for a three-year term as dean of the faculty of agriculture and food science in the American University in Beirut. Despite the assassination of University President Malcolm H. Kerr and the kidnapping of Professor Frank Reiger in 1984, and despite being warned repeatedly by the State Department to leave, Sutherland remained at the University.[ citation needed ] Two weeks after David P. Jacobsen was abducted, Sutherland was also kidnapped while using the limousine of University President Calvin Plimpton. Upon his release, Sutherland claimed that the kidnappers mistook him for Plimpton.Sutherland was signed as a 17-year-old by Rangers F.C.
Falkirk is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, historically within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley, 23.3 miles (37.5 km) north-west of Edinburgh and 20.5 miles (33.0 km) north-east of Glasgow.
Rangers Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the Govan district of Glasgow. It has played in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League, since winning the 2015–16 Scottish Championship. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, in the southwest of the city, is the third largest football stadium in the country. Although not part of the official name, the club is occasionally referred to as Glasgow Rangers. Rangers have played in blue shirts since the inception of the club.
He was the second-longest held captive after Terry Anderson. 1555912559). He claims to have attempted suicide a number of times and to have spent a substantial amount of time in solitary confinement.[ citation needed ]His memories of the experience were published in a book co-authored by his wife Jean, At Your Own Risk ( ISBN
Terry A. Anderson is an American journalist. He reported for the Associated Press. In 1985, he was taken hostage by Shiite Hezbollah militants or the Islamic Jihad Organization and held until 1991. In 2004, he ran unsuccessfully for the Ohio State Senate.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
In June 2001, the Sutherland family won a $323 million verdict in a lawsuit against the frozen assets of the government of Iran, because of evidence that Iran had directed terrorists to kidnap Americans in Lebanon. 106–386, Sutherland and his family received $35,041,877.36 (including interest) and the lien for the rest of the original settlement is now held by the US Government.In accordance with Section 2002 of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Pub.L.
Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton. The law was later reauthorized by presidents Bush, Obama, and Trump. In addition to its applicability to US citizens, it has the ability to authorize protections for undocumented immigrants who are victims of severe forms of trafficking and violence.
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.
Sutherland died on July 22, 2016 in Fort Collins, Colorado, aged 85.
Fort Collins is a municipality in northern Colorado, which serves as the seat of Larimer County. Situated on the Cache La Poudre River along the Colorado Front Range, Fort Collins is located 56 mi (90 km) north of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. With a 2016 estimated population of 161,000, it is the fourth most populous city in Colorado after Denver, Colorado Springs, and Aurora. Fort Collins is a midsize college city, home to Colorado State University.
Terence Hardy "Terry" Waite is an English humanitarian and author.
William Francis Buckley was a United States Army officer, a Paramilitary Officer in Special Activities Division and a CIA station chief in Beirut from 1984 until 1985. His cover was as a Political Officer at the US Embassy. He died on or around June 3, 1985—five months before the date claimed by his captors—after an extended period of psychological torture conducted by psychiatrist Aziz al-Abub, who was affiliated with Hezbollah. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery and is commemorated with a star on the Memorial Wall at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) headquarters in Langley, Virginia.
Imad Fayez Mughniyeh, alias al-Hajj Radwan, was the founding member of Lebanon's Islamic Jihad Organization and number two in Hezbollah's leadership. Information about Mughniyeh is limited, but he is believed to have been Hezbollah's Chief of Staff and understood to have overseen Hezbollah's military, intelligence, and security apparatuses. He was one of the main founders of Hezbollah in the 1980s. He has been described as "a brilliant military tactician and very elusive".
Servite Father Lawrence Martin Jenco,, a native of Joliet, Illinois, United States, was an American Catholic priest famous for being held hostage in Beirut, Lebanon by Islamic radicals. He was held for 564 days before being released and allowed to return to the United States. He died in Illinois, of cancer, in 1996. He is buried in The Queen of Heaven Cemetery in Hillside, Illinois.
John Patrick McCarthy is a British journalist, writer and broadcaster, and one of the hostages in the Lebanon hostage crisis. McCarthy was the United Kingdom's longest-held hostage in Lebanon, where he was a prisoner for more than five years.
Brian Keenan is a Northern Irish writer whose work includes the book An Evil Cradling, an account of the four and a half years he spent as a hostage in Beirut, Lebanon from 11 April 1986 to 24 August 1990.
Benjamin Weir was an American hostage in Lebanon (1985).
Members of the Iraqi insurgency began taking foreign hostages in Iraq beginning in April 2004. Since then, in a dramatic instance of Islamist kidnapping they have taken captive more than 200 foreigners and thousands of Iraqis; among them, dozens of hostages were killed and others rescued or freed. In 2004, executions of captives were often filmed, and many were beheaded. However, the number of the recorded killings decreased significantly. Many hostages remain missing with no clue as to their whereabouts. The United States Department of State Hostage Working Group was organized by the U.S. Embassy, Baghdad, in the summer of 2004 to monitor foreign hostages in Iraq.
Shapour Bakhtiar was an Iranian politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Iran under the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. He and his secretary were murdered in his home in Suresnes, near Paris by agents of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Three Iranian diplomats as well as a reporter of Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) were abducted in Lebanon on 4 July 1982. None of them have been seen since. The missing individuals are Ahmad Motevaselian, military attaché for Iran's embassy in Beirut; Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, chargé d'affaires at the embassy; Taghi Rastegar Moghadam, an embassy employee; and Kazem Akhavan, IRNA photojournalist. Motevaselian was also an Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) member in command of an Iranian expeditionary force in Lebanon.
Charles Glass is an American-British author, journalist, broadcaster and publisher specializing in the Middle East and the Second World War.
David Stuart Dodge was the Vice-President for Administration (1979–83), Acting President (1981–82) and President (1996–97) of the American University of Beirut (AUB).
Francis Edward Meloy Jr. was a U.S. diplomat murdered in Beirut, Lebanon in 1976 by Palestinian terrorists of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
The 1983 Kuwait bombings were attacks on six key foreign and Kuwaiti installations on 12 December 1983, two months after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing. The 90-minute coordinated attack on two embassies, the country's main airport, and petro-chemical plant was more notable for the damage it was intended to cause than what was actually destroyed. What might have been "the worst terrorist episode of the twentieth century in the Middle East" killed only six people because of the bombs' faulty rigging.
The Lebanon hostage crisis was the kidnapping in Lebanon of 104 foreign hostages between 1982 and 1992, when the Lebanese Civil War was at its height. The hostages were mostly Americans and Western Europeans, but 21 national origins were represented. At least eight hostages died in captivity; some were murdered, while others died from lack of adequate medical attention to illnesses.
Jackie Mann was a British RAF fighter pilot in the Battle of Britain, who in later life was kidnapped by Islamists in Lebanon in May 1989, and held hostage for more than two years.
Michel Seurat was a sociologist and researcher at the CNRS, born 14 August 1947 in Tunisia and died in Beirut in 1986.
The Le Commodore Hotel Beirut, also known variously as the "Beirut Commodore Hotel", "Hotel Commodore", or simply "the Commodore" is a five-star luxury hotel located at Rue Baalbek on the Hamra district of Beirut in Lebanon. During the Lebanese Civil War, the Commodore became the international news media's hotel of choice, providing a safe heaven for many Lebanese and foreign correspondents and diplomats on assignment in the war-torn Lebanese Capital between 1975 and 1987, and served as a global centre for news and information.