Thomas Taggart

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Thomas Taggart
TAGGART, SENATOR FROM INDIANA LOC hec.07572 (cropped).jpg
U.S. Senator
from Indiana
In office
March 20, 1916 November 7, 1916
Preceded by Benjamin F. Shively
Succeeded by James Eli Watson
Chair of the Democratic National Committee
In office
1904–1908
Preceded by James Kimbrough Jones
Succeeded by Norman E. Mack
18th Mayor of Indianapolis
In office
January 1, 1895 December 31, 1901
Preceded by Caleb S. Denny
Succeeded by Charles A. Bookwalter
Personal details
BornNovember 17, 1856
Amyvale, County Monaghan, Ireland
DiedMarch 6, 1929 (aged 72)
Indianapolis, Indiana
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)Eva Bryant Taggart (1853–1937) [1]
ChildrenFlorence (1878–1899),
Lucy (1880–1960),
Nora (b. 1881),
Irene (b. 1883),
Emily (b. 1888), and
Thomas D. (b. 1886)
ResidenceIndianapolis;
French Lick, Indiana;
Hyannis Port, Massachusetts
OccupationPolitician, hotelier, and financier

Thomas Taggart (November 17, 1856 March 6, 1929) was the political boss of the Democratic Party in Indiana for the first quarter of the twentieth century and remained an influential political figure in local, state, and national politics until his death. Taggart was elected auditor of Marion County, Indiana (1886–1894) and mayor of Indianapolis (1895 to 1901). His mayoral administration supported public improvements, most notably the formation of the city's park and boulevard system. He also served as a member of the Democratic National Committee (1900–1916) and as its chairman (1904–1908). Taggart was appointed to the U.S. Senate in March 1916, but lost the seat in the November election.

Democratic Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

Indiana State of the United States of America

Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U.S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, and Illinois to the west.

Marion County, Indiana County in the United States

Marion County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana. Census 2010 recorded a population of 903,393, making it the largest county in the state and 55th most populated county in the country, greater than the population of six states. The county seat is Indianapolis, the state capital and largest city. Marion County is consolidated with Indianapolis through an arrangement known as Unigov.

Contents

Taggart, an Irish-born immigrant, came to the United States in 1861 at the age of five, grew up in Xenia, Ohio, and moved to Indiana as a teenager. After relocating to Indianapolis in 1877, he began a successful career as an hotelier, financier, and politician. As the party's county chairman during Grover Cleveland's 1888 presidential campaign, Taggart helped him carry Marion County over Republican Benjamin Harrison, the hometown candidate. As state chairman in 1892, Taggart helped Cleveland carry Indiana in opposition to Harrison’s bid for reelection. In 1908 Taggart assisted in securing the Democratic nomination of John W. Kern for U.S. vice president and Thomas R. Marshall for governor of Indiana. He was also involved in securing the nomination of Woodrow Wilson for U.S. president and Marshall for vice president in 1912, as well as James M. Cox's nomination in the 1920 presidential election. In addition to his political activities, Taggart was the owner and developer of the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana; he also maintained a summer home at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts.

Ireland Island in north-west Europe, 20th largest in world, politically divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (a part of the UK)

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Xenia, Ohio City in Ohio, United States

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Early life and family

Thomas Taggart was born on November 17, 1856, to Thomas and Martha Kingsbury Taggart in Amyvale, County Monaghan, Ireland, and immigrated with his family to the United States in 1861 at the age of five. The Taggarts settled in Xenia, Ohio, where Thomas senior worked at a local railroad depot. Young Taggart left high school early to work full time at the depot's hotel and restaurant. In 1875, when young Thomas was 18, his employer, the N. and G. Ohmer Company, sent him to Garrett, Indiana, to work in the restaurant at DeKalb House, a depot hotel. Thomas remained at Garrett until 1877, when he was transferred to Indianapolis, Indiana, to work as a clerk for the Ohmer company's dining hall/restaurant at the city's Union Depot. Known as a hard worker, Taggart became the depot restaurant's manager and eventually its sole owner in the new Union Station. [2] [3] [4]

County Monaghan County in the Republic of Ireland

County Monaghan is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Monaghan. Monaghan County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 60,483 according to the 2011 census.

Garrett, Indiana City in Indiana, United States

Garrett is a city in Keyser Township, DeKalb County, Indiana, United States. The population was 6,286 at the 2010 census.

Indianapolis State capital and Consolidated city-county in the United States

Indianapolis, often shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680. The "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U.S. The Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U.S., with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles (950 km2), making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.

In 1878, a year after his move to Indianapolis, Taggart married Eva Dora Bryant (1853–1937), [1] whom he met while living in Garrett. Thomas and his wife were the parents of six children, five daughters and one son. Florence Eva (1878–1899) died tragically in a yachting accident in the Gulf of Mexico; Lucy Martha (1880–1960) became an accomplished artist and art educator at the John Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis; Nora (born 1881), a Vassar College graduate, married David L. Chambers, who became president and chairman of the Bobbs-Merrill Company; Irene Mary (born 1883) married a physician from Louisville, Kentucky; Emily Letitia (born 1888) married William R. Sinclair, an executive with Kingan and Company, an Indianapolis-based meatpacker; and Thomas Douglas (born 1886) graduated from Yale University and in 1912 assumed management of the French Lick Springs Hotel. Thomas and Eva Taggart also had nine grandchildren. [5]

Herron School of Art and Design American art school

Herron School of Art and Design, a school of Indiana University, was ranked 59th overall by U.S. News and World Report among graduate schools of fine arts in 2016.

Vassar College private, coeducational liberal arts college in Poughkeepsie, New York, in the United States

Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar, it was the second degree-granting institution of higher education for women in the United States, closely following Elmira College. It became coeducational in 1969, and now has a gender ratio at the national average. The school is one of the historic Seven Sisters, the first elite female colleges in the U.S., and has a historic relationship with Yale University, which suggested a merger with the college before coeducation at both institutions.

The Bobbs-Merrill Company was a book publisher located in Indianapolis, Indiana.

The Taggart family's primary residence was in Indianapolis, where they built a new home at 1331 North Delaware Street in 1913. The large home included a Georgian Colonial exterior and an Italian-style interior. It was selected as one of House Beautiful's three best homes in Indianapolis in 1920. [6] The Taggarts were members of Saint Paul Episcopal Church in Indianapolis. [7]

Georgian architecture set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention", and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range.

<i>House Beautiful</i> American interior decorating magazine

House Beautiful is an interior decorating magazine that focuses on decorating and the domestic arts. First published in 1896, it is currently published by the Hearst Corporation, who began publishing it in 1934. It is the oldest still-published magazine in what is known as the "shelter magazine" genre.

In 1901, after Taggart and a group of investors purchased the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana, the Taggart family frequently visited the hotel. Its seven-story deluxe wing, completed in 1915, provided accommodations for the family when they were in residence. [8] [9]

French Lick Springs Hotel hotel in Indiana

The French Lick Springs Hotel, a part of the French Lick Resort Casino complex, is a major resort hotel in Orange County, Indiana. The historic hotel in the national historic district at French Lick was initially known as a mineral spring health spa and for its trademarked Pluto Water. During the period 1901 to 1946, when Thomas Taggart, a former mayor of Indianapolis, and his son, Thomas D. Taggart, were its owners and operators, the popular hotel attracted many fashionable, wealthy, and notable guests. In the 1920s and into the 1930s, the resort became known for its recreational sports, most notably golf, but the French Lick area also had a reputation for illegal gambling. After a series of subsequent owners and renovations, the hotel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. The restored hotel, with its exteriors of distinctive, buff-colored brick, reopened in 2006.

Orange County, Indiana County in the United States

Orange County is located in southern Indiana in the United States. As of 2010, its population was 19,840, an increase of 2.8% from 19,306 in 2000. The county seat is Paoli. The county has four incorporated settlements with a total population of about 8,600, as well as several small unincorporated communities. It is divided into 10 townships which provide local services. One U.S. route and five Indiana state roads pass through or into the county.

The family also had a summer home built in 1915–16 at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. The home was called Amyvale, in honor of Taggart’s Irish birthplace. In 1928 Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy acquired property adjacent to the Taggarts' Hyannis Port home to establish the Kennedy compound. The Taggarts' Hyannis Port home was sold after Eva's death, in 1937. [10]

Career

After his move to Indianapolis in 1877, Taggart began a successful career as an Indiana hotelier, financier, and politician. [2] Taggart became the owner of the restaurant at the Indianapolis Union Station, but sold his restaurant business and began other ventures that included acquisition of two hotels in Indianapolis and the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana, among other investments. [3] Taggart also became a "powerful Democratic boss of the state," often referred to by his initials, T. T., or called "the Easy Boss" because of his congenial nature. [11]

Taggart was elected auditor of Marion County, Indiana (1886–1894) and mayor of Indianapolis (1895–1901). As the Democratic Party's boss in Indiana, a member of Democratic National Committee (1900–1916), and the party's national chairman (1904–1908), Taggart also became an influential political figure in state and national politics. In 1916 Taggart was appointed U.S. Senator, but he was defeated later that year in a special election. [2] [12]

Hotelier

After Taggart sold his restaurant business at the Indianapolis Union Station, his investments expanded to include controlling interests in the Grand and Denison hotels in Indianapolis and investments in the copper, gas, and oil industries. [3]

In 1901 Taggart began his most ambitious and famous project when he organized a small group of investors that acquired and developed the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana. [13] [14] In addition to Taggart, the group included William McDoel, president of the Monon Railroad; Crawford Fairbanks, a Terre Haute brewery owner; and Colonel Livingston T. Dickson, owner of "quarry and mineral interests in Indiana and Illinois." [15]

Around 1905 Taggart bought his partners' interests in the mineral springs hotel to become its sole owner. Under Taggart's direction, the property was transformed into a first-class spa and a renowned gambling resort. Taggart made improvements and additions to the hotel, its mineral springs, and the resort's grounds. He also modernized the facilities, established trolley service to French Lick, and convinced the Monon Railroad to lay a spur track to the hotel's grounds and run daily passenger service to Chicago. [16] At the height of the resort's popularity in the early decades of the 20th century, the hotel provided more than $2 million in annual profits. [17]

Although casino gambling was illegal under Indiana law, it flourished the Orange County area from the early 1900s until the mid-1940s, during the time the Taggart family managed the French Lick Springs Hotel, and contributed to the resort's popularity. Several casinos were in operation within Orange County, but Taggart disassociated himself with any connection to these local gambling establishments and denied any involvement in illegal gambling operations. [18]

Politician

Taggart, who was a Democrat, became active in local politics in Indianapolis in the 1880s. He was elected auditor of heavily Republican Marion County in 1886, reelected in 1890, and served in that capacity until 1894. During that time Taggart also served as the Democratic Party chairman at the city, county, and state levels. As the county chairman during the presidential campaign of 1888, his efforts helped Grover Cleveland carry Marion County over native son Benjamin Harrison, the first time the county had voted Democratic in a Presidential election. As state chairman in 1892, Taggart helped Cleveland carry Indiana to challenge Harrison's bid for reelection. [4] [19]

From 1895 to 1901, Taggart served three two-year terms as the mayor of Indianapolis. [2] He defeated Republican Preston C. Trusler in 1895, William M. Harding in 1897 and Charles A. Bookwalter in 1899. During his mayoralty, Taggart's administration emphasized efficient use of the city's funds and civic improvements that included acquisition of more than 900 acres (360 hectares) along the White River to establish the city's park and boulevard system. [4] Although the city's then-growing African American population generally supported Republicans until the New Deal, Indianapolis lawyers Alexander E. Manning (who became president of the National League of Negro Democrats in 1896) and James T.V. Hill were Taggart's liaisons with their community, which helped elect and re-elect Taggart. [20]

Taggart remained active in national and state politics until his death in 1929. He served on the Democratic National Committee from 1900 to 1916 and as its chairman from 1904 to 1908. [2] As the party's national chairman, Taggart ran Judge Alton B. Parker's campaign in the presidential election in 1904, but Parker lost to Theodore Roosevelt. Taggart played a key role in securing John W. Kern's Democratic nomination for U.S. vice president and Thomas R. Marshall's nomination for governor of Indiana in 1908, as well as Woodrow Wilson's nomination for U.S. president and Marshall's vice presidential nomination in 1912 at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore, Maryland. [21] [22]

On March 20, 1916, Indiana governor Samuel M. Ralston appointed Taggart, his political ally, to the U.S. Senate to fill a seat left vacant by the death of Benjamin F. Shively. Taggart advocated efficient use of federal funds and opposed wasteful spending, although his time in the Senate was brief. That November proved a Republican sweep and Taggart lost the Senate seat to James E. Watson. In 1920 Taggart helped James M. Cox win the Democratic nomination in the presidential election. Cox reciprocated by supporting Taggart’s challenge to regain the Senate seat from Watson, but again Republicans swept in the November general election: Warren G. Harding defeated Cox and Taggart lost to Watson . [2] [23]

In 1924 Taggart had nearly secured Samuel Ralston's nomination as the Democratic candidate in the presidential election before Ralston withdrew from the race for health reasons. [21] In Indiana's gubernatorial campaign that year, Taggart endorsed Carleton B. McCulloch, but McCulloch lost the election to Edward L. Jackson, who enjoyed strong Ku Klux Klan support and carried all but two of Indiana's 92 counties. [24] [25]

Later years

Taggart's health declined in the 1920s, but he remained active in national and state politics and civil affairs until his death in Indianapolis in 1929. [3] He served as chairman of the board of directors of American Fletcher National Bank (1925–1929); as a director of the Indianapolis, Light, Heat, and Power Company; and treasurer of the Indiana Lincoln Union. He was also a member of the George Rogers Clark Memorial Commission. [21]

Death and legacy

Taggart died on March 6, 1929. After a brief funeral service in the dining room of his North Delaware Street home in Indianapolis, he was buried at Crown Hill Cemetery. His gravesite is near those of his wife, Eva, and four of their children (Florence, Lucy, Irene, and Thomas). The Taggart family burial plot is in Section Three of the cemetery and marked with a tall, gray obelisk. [7] [3] Following his death in 1929, Taggart's son, Thomas Douglas, became owner of the French Lick Springs Hotel property and buildings valued at nearly $2 million. [13] [26]

Taggart is considered the "undisputed boss of the Democratic machine for the first quarter of the twentieth century" [27] and "one of Indiana’s most dominant political figures." [11] He is also remembered for his support of public improvements as mayor of Indianapolis, most notably the formation of city's public park and boulevard system. Taggart's efforts in this area made him "a leader in the movement to conserve urban natural resources for public use." [4]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Eva Bryant Taggart
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fadely "Desperate Hope," p. 7. See also: James Philip Fadely (Summer 1997). "Subtle Grace, Radiant Color: The Life of Hoosier Artist Lucy Taggart". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis, Indiana. 9 (3): 16, 18. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Douglas A. Wissing, Marianne Tobias, Rebecca W. Dolan, and Anne Ryder (2013). Crown Hill: History, Spirit, and Sanctuary. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. p. 143. ISBN   9780871953018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. 1 2 3 4 David J. Bodenhamer and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1316. ISBN   978-0-253-31222-8.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  5. Fadely "Desperate Hope," pp. 7, 9; Fadely, "Subtle Grace, Radiant Color," pp. 16, 18, 23.
  6. Fadely, "Subtle Grace, Radiant Color," p. 19.
  7. 1 2
  8. Eliza Steelwater (August 15, 2002). "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form: French Lick Springs Hotel" (pdf). United States Department of the Interior/National Park Service. pp. 12–15, 18–20. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  9. James P. Fadely (1997). Thomas Taggart: Public Servant, Political Boss: 1856–1929. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. pp. 65–68. ISBN   978-0-87195-115-1.
  10. Fadely "Desperate Hope," p. 9; Fadely, "Subtle Grace, Radiant Color," pp. 19, 23.
  11. 1 2 Fadely "Desperate Hope," p. 5.
  12. Chapter 4 in Richard Walter Haupt (1954). History of the French Lick Springs Hotel. Indiana University. pp. 94–121.
  13. 1 2 "History of the French Lick and West Baden Springs Hotels". WFLQ Radio. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  14. Steelwater, p. 56; Fadely, Thomas Taggart, pp. xii and 57.
  15. Fadely, Thomas Taggart, p. 63.
  16. Steelwater, pp. 5–6; 22–26. See also: Christina R. Bunting (2012). "Mineral Springs: The French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana". THG: Connections. Indianapolis. 52 (2): 43.
  17. Bunting, p. 45.
  18. Fadely, Thomas Taggart, pp. 74–76.
  19. Fadely, "Desperate Hope," p. 7.
  20. Bodenhamer-Barrows p.242
  21. 1 2 3 Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 1317.
  22. Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair, eds. (2006). The Governors of Indiana. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press and the Indiana Historical Bureau. pp. 235–36. ISBN   978-0-87195-196-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  23. Andrew E. Stoner (2017). Campaign Crossroads: Presidential Politics in Indiana from Lincoln to Obama. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. pp. 200–01. ISBN   9780871954022.
  24. Fadely, Thomas Taggart, pp. 185, 189–90, 195; Gugin, and St. Clair, eds., p. 276.
  25. "Ball State University". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2006-06-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  26. Steelwater, p. 57.
  27. Fadely "Subtle Grace, Radiant Color," p. 18.

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Andrew Humphreys was a U.S. Representative from Bloomfield, Greene County, Indiana, who served in the Forty-fourth Congress. Prior to the American Civil War, Humphreys was as a member of the Indiana House of Representatives, and an Indian agent for Utah. In 1864 Humphreys was a defendant in a controversial trial by a military commission that convened on October 21 at Indianapolis, where he and three others were convicted of treason. Humphreys was sentenced to hard labor for the remainder of the war, but the sentence was modified three weeks later to allow for his release. At the end of the war, Humphreys resumed a career in politics, which included terms in Forty-fourth Congress and the Indiana Senate.

Indiana in the American Civil War

Indiana, a state in the Midwest, played an important role in supporting the Union during the American Civil War. Despite anti-war activity within the state, and southern Indiana's ancestral ties to the South, Indiana was a strong supporter of the Union. Indiana contributed approximately 210,000 Union soldiers, sailors, and marines. Indiana's soldiers served in 308 military engagements during the war; the majority of them in the western theater, between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains. Indiana's war-related deaths reached 25,028. Its state government provided funds to purchase equipment, food, and supplies for troops in the field. Indiana, an agriculturally rich state containing the fifth-highest population in the Union, was critical to the North's success due to its geographical location, large population, and agricultural production. Indiana residents, also known as Hoosiers, supplied the Union with manpower for the war effort, a railroad network and access to the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, and agricultural products such as grain and livestock. The state experienced two minor raids by Confederate forces, and one major raid in 1863, which caused a brief panic in southern portions of the state and its capital city, Indianapolis.

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis, the state capital of Indiana, was a major base of supplies for the Union. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a gathering place to organize and train troops for the Union army. The city became a major railroad hub for troop transport to Confederate lands, and therefore had military importance. Twenty-four military camps were established in the vicinity of Indianapolis. Camp Morton, the initial mustering ground to organize and train the state's Union volunteers in 1861, was designated as a major prisoner-of-war camp for captured Confederate soldiers in 1862. In addition to military camps, a state-owned arsenal was established in the city in 1861, and a federal arsenal in 1862. A Soldiers' Home and a Ladies' Home were established in Indianapolis to house and feed Union soldiers and their families as they passed through the city. Indianapolis residents also supported the Union cause by providing soldiers with food, clothing, equipment, and supplies, despite rising prices and wartime hardships, such as food and clothing shortages. Local doctors aided the sick, some area women provided nursing care, and Indianapolis City Hospital tended to wounded soldiers. Indianapolis sent an estimated 4,000 men into military service; an estimated 700 died during the war. Indianapolis's Crown Hill National Cemetery was established as one of two national military cemeteries established in Indiana in 1866.

William A. Bowles was a physician, landowner, and politician from French Lick, Orange County, Indiana. He is best remembered for establishing the first French Lick Springs Hotel, a mineral springs resort hotel in the 1840s, and platting the town of French Lick, Indiana, in 1857. Bowles, a Democrat, served two terms in the Indiana state legislature. During the Mexican–American War he became a colonel in the 2nd Indiana Volunteer Regiment and joined in the Battle of Buena Vista (1847). An outspoken advocate of slavery as an institution, Bowles was sympathetic to the South during the American Civil War. In 1863 Harrison H. Dodd, leader of the Order of Sons of Liberty (OSL) in Indiana, named Bowles a major general for one of four military districts in the state's secret society that opposed the war. Bowles also played a role in the Indianapolis treason trials in 1864, when he and three others were convicted of plotting to overthrow the federal government. Following his release from prison in 1866, Bowles returned to Orange County, Indiana, where his failing health continued to decline in the years prior to his death.

<i>Abraham Lincoln</i> (relief by Schwarz) Rudolph Schwarz plaque

The Abraham Lincoln commemorative plaque is a work of public art designed by Marie Stewart in 1906, created by Rudolph Schwarz, and dedicated on 12 February 1907.

The Propylaeum

The Propylaeum, also known as the John W. Schmidt House or as the Schmidt-Schaf House, is a historic home and carriage house located at 1410 North Delaware Street in Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana. The Propylaeum was named after the Greek word "propýlaion," meaning "gateway to higher culture." The property became the headquarters for the Indianapolis Woman's Club in 1923, as well as the host for several other social and cultural organizations. It was initially built in 1890-1891 as a private residence for John William Schmidt, president of the Indianapolis Brewing Company, and his family. Joseph C. Schaf, president of the American Brewing Company of Indianapolis, and his family were subsequent owners of the home.

Lucy Taggart was an artist and art educator from Indianapolis, Indiana, and the daughter of Thomas Taggart, a successful hotelier and influential Indiana politician. Recognized as a talented and versatile artist during a career that spanned the first three decades of the twentieth century, she studied with several noted artists, such as William Merritt Chase, John Henry Twachtman, Kenyon Cox, William Forsyth, Otto Stark, Charles Webster Hawthorne, Cecilia Beaux, and Harriet Whitney Frishmuth. Taggart, who was especially known for her portraiture, received the John Herron Art Institute's J. Irving Holcomb Prize in 1922, the Hoosier Salon's Merit Award for figure composition in 1925, and the Hoosier Salon's Merit Award in 1926 for best picture painted by a woman. Her work is represented in the collections of the Indianapolis Museum of Art.

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Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Caleb S. Denny
Mayor of Indianapolis
1895–1901
Succeeded by
Charles A. Bookwalter
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Benjamin F. Shively
United States Senator (Class 3) from Indiana
1916
Succeeded by
James Eli Watson