Thomas Theodor Heine

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Cover illustration by Thomas Theodor Heine for the magazine Simplicissimus in 1910 Simplicissimus1910.png
Cover illustration by Thomas Theodor Heine for the magazine Simplicissimus in 1910

Thomas Theodor Heine (28 February 1867–26 January 1948) was a German painter and illustrator. Born in Leipzig, Heine established himself as a gifted caricaturist at an early age, which led to him studying art at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf and, briefly, at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. [1] In 1896 he became successful as an illustrator for the satirical Munich magazine Simplicissimus , for which he appropriated the stylistic idiom of Jugendstil and the graphic qualities of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Aubrey Beardsley and Japanese woodcuts. [1] The illustrated critiques of social orders, and the monarchy in particular, that he made for the magazine led to a six-month prison sentence in 1898. [1] He also began work as a book illustrator in the 1890s.

Leipzig Place in Saxony, Germany

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain.

Caricature

A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.

Kunstakademie Düsseldorf art school in Düsseldorf, Germany

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He fled Germany in 1933, first to Prague. From 1938 until 1942 he lived in Oslo, and from 1942 until his death in 1948 he lived in Stockholm. [1] He published a highly cynical autobiography in 1942 Ich warte auf Wunder (English: I Wait for Miracles). [2]

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Oslo Place in Østlandet, Norway

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Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 962,154 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

While "I Wait for Miracles" claims neither to be autobiographical nor a Roman A Clef, it was written in 1941 while Hitler was in power in Germany and the Second World War was on-going. Despite the author's protestations, it is a novel based upon the events of the day, and in particular the events in Munich during the German Revolution of 1918-1919, the Bavarian Soviet Republic, and the rise of National Socialism from 1920 to 1925. Hitler is unfavorably portrayed as the character named "Icarus," a soldier who first mesmerizes Munich audiences in the chapter entitled The Mass Meeting. It also depicts with less accuracy the 14 September 1921 assault by Hitler on the separatist Otto Ballerstedt, which resulted in Hitler being convicted and sentenced to 100 days in jail.

Bavarian Soviet Republic short-lived unrecognised socialist state in Bavaria during the German Revolution of 1918–19

The Bavarian Soviet Republic was a short-lived unrecognised socialist state in Bavaria during the German Revolution of 1918–19. It took the form of a workers' council republic. Its name is variously rendered in English as the Bavarian Council Republic or the Munich Soviet Republic after its capital, Munich. It was established in April 1919 after the demise of Kurt Eisner's People's State of Bavaria and sought independence from the also newly proclaimed Weimar Republic. It was overthrown less than a month later by elements of the German Army and the paramilitary Freikorps.

Otto Ballerstedt was a German engineer, writer and politician. Ballerstedt was mainly known as leader of the secessionist Bayernbund and as a political rival of Adolf Hitler in the early days of his political career who caused Hitler to be jailed for a month in 1922.

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Beer Hall Putsch Failed coup attempt in 1923

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<i>Simplicissimus</i> periodical literature

Simplicissimus was a satirical German weekly magazine started by Albert Langen in April 1896 and published until 1967, with a hiatus from 1944-1954. It became a biweekly in 1964. It took its name from the protagonist of Grimmelshausen's 1668 novel Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch. The headquarters were in Munich.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Sepp Kern, "Heine, Thomas Theodor," Grove Art Online , Oxford University Press [accessed 21 April 2008].
  2. Brian Keith-Smith, "Review of Thomas Theodor Heine: Fin-de-siècle Munich and the Origins of 'Simplicissimus by Timothy W. Hiles," The Modern Language Review, vol. 94 (Apr., 1999), pp. 591-592.

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