Thomas Landore, pictured c. 1875
|Died|| 16 March 1888 70–71) (aged|
|Occupation||Church minister and chapel architect|
Thomas Thomas (1817 – 16 March 1888) was a Welsh church minister and chapel architect, also known as Thomas Glandŵr (Thomas Landore). He is described as "the first national architect of Wales"and the "unchallenged master of chapel architecture in Wales in the 1860s".
The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from Latin minister, which itself was derived from minus ("less").
The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college, hospital, palace, prison, funeral home, church, synagogue or mosque, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an entirely free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds. Chapel has also referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside the established church.
Thomas Thomas was born in 1817 and brought up near Ffairfach, at Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire. His father ran a carpentry business, where Thomas worked before moving to Swansea.
Ffairfach is a village 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) south of the market town of Llandeilo in the eastern part of Carmarthenshire, Wales. It is located close to the confluence of the Afon Cennen and the River Towy.
Llandeilo is a community and town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, situated at the crossing of the River Towy by the A483 on a 19th-century stone bridge. Its population was 1,795 at the 2011 Census. It is adjacent to the westernmost point of the Brecon Beacons National Park.
Carmarthenshire is a unitary authority in southwest Wales, and one of the historic counties of Wales. The three largest towns are Llanelli, Carmarthen and Ammanford. Carmarthen is the county town and administrative centre.
Though he had no formal training he was appointed as a chapel minister in Clydach in 1848, a post which he held until 1853.Reverend Thomas subsequently became a Congregational minister at Landore, Swansea, until he resigned in 1875. It has been conjectured that he resigned after it was discovered he was the owner of sub-standard workers housing in north Swansea.
Clydach is a large village and community in the City and County of Swansea, Wales, falling within Clydach ward and the Llangyfelach Parish. It is located some 6 miles (9.7 km) north east of Swansea city centre. Its population in 2001 was 7,320. Welsh is the first language of 24 per cent of the population and both Welsh and English language schools are available. The village lies close to the M4 motorway which can be accessed via the bypass or old road via Ynystawe.
Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Landore is a district and community in Swansea, Wales. The district falls in the Landore council ward. A mainly residential area, it is located about 2.5 miles north of Swansea city centre. The north-easterly part of Landore is known as Morfa. There have been a number of new developments in the 21st century, such as the Liberty Stadium and the Morfa Shopping Park, which opened in 2005.
Thomas was also known an architect and began designing chapels in 1848 and continued through the chapel-building boom of the 1860s and '70s, designing not only for his own Congregational denomination but for others too.He had redesigned Landore's own Siloh Chapel in 1860. The New Siloh Chapel (1878) in Landore was, however, designed after Thomas's resignation by Thomas Freeman who had been a builder and surveyor of the Reverend Thomas's earlier chapels.
The New Siloh Congregational Chapel, also known as the Siloh Welsh Independent Chapel or simply the New Siloh Chapel, is a Grade II* listed chapel building at the top of Siloh Hill in Landore, Swansea, Wales. The prefix 'New' distinguishes it from the nearby Old Siloh Chapel, built in 1829.
Thomas Thomas is credited with at least 119 chapels across Wales. He also made sure he garnered the distinction of preaching the first sermon (or one of the first sermons) at each of his new chapels.His trademark design feature of chapels was the giant arch in the pediment on the facade of his buildings. He also invented the stylistic interior feature of dipping the chapel gallery behind the preacher's pulpit.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns. The tympanum, the triangular area within the pediment, is often decorated with relief sculpture.
Pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin pulpitum. The traditional pulpit is raised well above the surrounding floor for audibility and visibility, accessed by steps, with sides coming to about waist height. From the late medieval period onwards, pulpits have often had a canopy known as the sounding board or abat-voix above and sometimes also behind the speaker, normally in wood. Though sometimes highly decorated, this is not purely decorative, but can have a useful acoustic effect in projecting the preacher's voice to the congregation below. Most pulpits have one or more book-stands for the preacher to rest his or her bible, notes or texts upon.
After resigning as a church minister, Thomas moved to Mumbles. He died there on 16 March 1888 and was buried at Sketty.
Mumbles is a headland sited on the western edge of Swansea Bay on the southern coast of Wales. The name Mumbles is also applied to the district encompassing the electoral wards of Oystermouth, Newton, West Cross, and Mayals. In the 2018 Best Places to Live in the UK report, The Sunday Times listed Mumbles as the best in Wales.
The suburban district of Sketty is located about 2 miles (3.2 km) to the west of the Swansea city centre on Gower Road. Sketty falls within the Sketty council ward of Swansea.
Llanelli is the largest town in both the county of Carmarthenshire and the preserved county of Dyfed, Wales. Located on the Loughor estuary, approximately 10 miles (16 km) west-northwest of Swansea and 12 miles (19 km) southeast of the county town, Carmarthen, LLanelli is famous for its proud rugby tradition and is a centre of tinplate production.
Thomas Rees was a Welsh Congregational minister and historian of nonconformism.
William Llewelyn Williams known as Llewelyn Williams, was a Welsh journalist, lawyer and radical Liberal Party politician.
Llangyndeyrn is a village and community in the River Gwendraeth river valley, Carmarthenshire, in Dyfed region of West Wales, United Kingdom. The village name is often spelt as Llangendeirne.
The Reverend David Rees was a Welsh Congregational minister of Capel Als chapel Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, and an editor of a radical Welsh language Nonconformist periodical titled Y Diwygiwr. He was best known as ‘Y Cynhyrfwr’, his radical political views, and his opposition to the relationship between the Established Church and the state.
Howell Elvet Lewis, CH, widely known by his bardic name Elfed, was a Welsh Congregational minister, hymn-writer, and devotional poet, who served as Archdruid of the National Eisteddfod of Wales from 1924 to 1928.
Peniel Chapel is a former Calvinistic Methodist chapel in Tremadog, Gwynedd. It is one of five Grade I-listed nonconformist chapels in Wales. It is in a neoclassical style inspired by mid-17th century St Paul's Church in Covent Garden, London. Its interior theater auditorium concept influenced Welsh church architecture from the nineteenth century.
Capel Heol Awst is an Independent Welsh chapel in the town of Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales. The present building dates from 1826–27, replacing a 1726 building which itself had been enlarged in 1802 and again in 1826 to seat a congregation of 1000. It is located at 7 Friars Park, Carmarthen. It was designated as a Grade II* listed building on 19 May 1981.
Elim Independent Chapel is an independent chapel in the town of Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales. The building dates from 1849 and is located about one mile north of Lime Grove House, Carmarthen. The chapel was designated a Grade II listed building on 19 May 1981.
Penuel Baptist Chapel, Carmarthen is a Baptist chapel and attached schoolroom in the town of Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales. The building dates from 1786 and is located in Priory Street at 7, Esplanade, Carmarthen.
Park Congregational Chapel is a Congregational chapel in the town of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was built in 1864 and is located at the junction between Murray Street and Inkerman Street. It was designated as a Grade II listed building on 3 December 1992.
Tabernacle Chapel is an Independent chapel in the town of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was built in 1872 and is located at 17, Cowell Street, Llanelli. It is a Grade II* listed building.
Zion or Seion Baptist Chapel is a Baptist chapel in the town of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was built in 1857 and is located at Island Place, close to the junction of Water Street with Upper Park Street.
Bethel Baptist Chapel is a Baptist chapel in the town of Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It was built in 1840 and is located on Copperworks Road. It had a larger seating capacity than most Llanelli chapels and in 1905 could seat 850 persons.
Salem Independent Chapel, Llandovery is an Independent chapel in the town of Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, Wales. The present building dates from between 1829 and 1830 and is located at Orchard Street, Llandovery. It was designated as a Grade II listed building on 26 February 1981.
Capel Als is an Independent (Congregational) chapel in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, Wales, It is regarded as one of the most significant religious buildings in Wales.
Thomas Johns was a Welsh Independent (Congregationalist) minister, best known for his pastorate at Capel Als, Llanelli, one of the largest chapels in Wales, from 1869 until his death in 1914.