Thomas Thomson (4 December 1817 – 18 April 1878) was a British surgeon with the British East India Company before becoming a botanist. He was a friend of Joseph Dalton Hooker and helped write the first volume of Flora Indica.
In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry and the veterinary fields.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century. He was a founder of geographical botany and Charles Darwin's closest friend. For twenty years he served as director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, succeeding his father, William Jackson Hooker, and was awarded the highest honours of British science.
He was born in Glasgow the son of Thomas Thomson, chemistry professor at Glasgow University. He qualified as an M.D. at Glasgow University in 1839, as was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the Bengal Army 21 December 1839.
Thomas Thomson was a Scottish chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory. His scientific accomplishments include the invention of the saccharometer and he gave silicon its current name. He served as president of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
He served during the campaign in Afghanistan 1839-1842 being present at the capture of Ghazni in 1839 and was taken prisoner at Ghazni in March 1842 but was released 21 September 1842. He served in the Sutlej campaign, 1845-46, being present at Firuzshahr, and in the second Sikh war, 1848-49. He was promoted Surgeon on 1 December 1853 and Surgeon Major on 21 December 1859.
Ghazni historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in central Afghanistan with a population of around 270,000 people. The city is strategically located along Highway 1, which has served as the main road between Kabul and southern Afghanistan for thousands of years. Situated on a plateau at 2,219 metres (7,280 ft) above sea level, the city is 150 km south of Kabul and serves as the capital of Ghazni Province.
He became Superintendent of the Honourable East India Company's Botanic Garden at Calcutta and was the Naturalist to and Member of the Tibet Mission. He was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1855 and retired 25 September 1863. In 1866 he was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal.
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.
The Royal Geographical Society is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the leading centre for geographers and geographical learning. The Society has over 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year through publications, research groups and lectures.
The Royal Geographical Society's Gold Medal consists of two separate awards: the Founder's Medal 1830 and the Patron's Medal 1838. Together they form the most prestigious of the society's awards. They are given for "the encouragement and promotion of geographical science and discovery." Royal approval is required before an award can be made.
He died in London, England, on 18 April 1878.
Sir Henry Yule was a Scottish Orientalist. He published many travel books, including translations of the work of Marco Polo and Mirabilia by the 14th century Dominican Friar Jordanus. He was also the compiler of a dictionary of Anglo-Indian terms, the Hobson-Jobson, along with Arthur Coke Burnell.
George Bentham was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".
Sir William Jackson Hooker was an English systematic botanist and organiser, and botanical illustrator. He held the post of Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, and was Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He enjoyed the friendship and support of Sir Joseph Banks for his exploring, collecting and organising work. His son, Joseph Dalton Hooker, succeeded him to the Directorship of Kew Gardens.
Nathaniel Wolff Wallich FRS was a surgeon and botanist of Danish origin who worked in India, initially in the Danish settlement near Calcutta and later for the Danish East India Company and the British East India Company. He was involved in the early development of the Calcutta Botanical Garden, describing many new plant species and developing a large herbarium collection which was distributed to collections in Europe. Several of the plants that he collected were named after him.
Sir William Beatty was an Irish surgeon who served in the Royal Navy. Born in Derry, Ireland, he joined as a surgeon's mate in 1791 at the age of 18. He is best known as the Ship's Surgeon aboard HMS Victory during the Battle of Trafalgar, at which he witnessed the death of Admiral Horatio Nelson, and for authoring an account of that battle – The Death of Lord Nelson.
John Forbes Royle, British botanist and teacher of materia medica, was born in Kanpur in 1798. He was in charge of the botanical garden at Saharanpur and played a role in the development of economic botany in India.
Robert Wight MD FRS FLS was a Scottish surgeon in the East India Company, whose professional career was spent entirely in southern India, where his greatest achievements were in botany – as an economic botanist and leading taxonomist in south India. He contributed to the introduction of American cotton. As a taxonomist he described 110 new genera and 1267 new species of flowering plants. He employed Indian botanical artists to illustrate a large number of plants collected by himself and Indian collectors he trained. Some of these illustrations were published William Hooker in Britain, but from 1838 published a series of illustrated works in Madras including the uncoloured, six-volume Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis (1838–53) and two hand-coloured, two-volume works, the Illustrations of Indian Botany (1838–50) and Spicilegium Neilgherrense (1845–51). By the time he retired from India in 1853 he had published 2464 illustrations of Indian plants.
Sir David Prain CMG, CIE, M.D., FRS FRSE LLD was a Scottish physician remembered as a noted amateur botanist. He worked for many years in India working in the Calcutta Botanical Garden and involved in cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling.
William Griffith was a British doctor, naturalist, and botanist. Griffith's botanical publications are from India and Burma. After a brief stay in Madras, he was assigned as a Civil Surgeon to Tenasserim, Burma, where he studied local plants and made collecting trips to the Barak River valley in Assam. He explored various parts of Burma, traveling the rivers, including the Irrawadi as far as Rangoon. He visited the highlands of Sikkim, and the region of the Himalayas around Shimla. Subsequently, Griffith was appointed as Civil Surgeon in Malacca, where he died of a parasitic liver disease.
Robert Graham was a Scottish physician and botanist.
Godfrey Thomas Vigne was an English amateur cricketer and traveller.
The Ghuznee Medal is a British campaign medal awarded for participation in the storming of the fortress of Ghuznee in Afghanistan, on 21 to 23 July 1839 by troops of the British and Indian Armies. This action, the Battle of Ghazni, took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
James Macfadyen (1799–1850) was a Scottish doctor and botanist who made a significant contribution to the scientific study of the plants of the Caribbean region. Born in Glasgow on 3 May 1799, he was the eldest son of a music publisher and bookseller, John Macfadyen, and his wife Elisabeth. Macfayden was the first to describe the grapefruit scientifically - he gave it its Linnean name, Citrus paradisi - and to describe new species of fig trees and other Caribbean plants. In addition to his contributions to botany, MacFayden practiced medicine and was actively involved in social organisations in Jamaica. He was elected Fellow of the Linnean Society of London on 16 January 1838 and (posthumously) Fellow of the Geological Society of London on 30 November 1850. On 25 November 1832 in Port Royal he married Margaret McGowan, by whom he had two daughters. After his wife’s death on 21 June 1843, he married Emma, by whom he had a son and a daughter. Whilst treating patients during one of the periodic epidemics of cholera there, he himself contracted the disease and died on 24 November 1850.
Admiral Sir William Hutcheon Hall,, was a British Royal Navy officer. He served in the First Anglo-Chinese War and Crimean War. He was one of the first British officers to make a thorough study of steam engines. In China, he commanded the iron steamship Nemesis of the East India Company. Although it was not officially commissioned as a Royal Navy warship, the Admiralty enabled Hall to count his time in the Nemesis as if he had served in one of Her Majesty's Ships.
Dr Robert Dundas Thomson FRSE FRS FRCP FCS was a British physician and chemist and a pioneer of public sanitation. He worked as an academic, medical officer of health and author.
Prof Allen Thomson FRS FRSE FRCSE was a Scottish physician, known as an anatomist and embryologist.
Events from the year 1817 in Scotland.
This article details events occurring in the year 1839 in India. Major events include the reduction of the Khanate of Kalat to a subsidiary ally of the British, and the capture of Aden in Yemen by the East India Company, creating an important stopover for voyages between Europe and India.
Richard Brinsley Hinds FRCS was a British naval surgeon, botanist and malacologist. He sailed on the 1835–42 voyage by HMS Sulphur to explore the Pacific Ocean, and edited the natural history reports of that expedition.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.
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