Thomas Thorp (1850–1914) was an English manufacturer of scientific instruments credited with inventing the first practical coin-in-the-slot gas meter, with innovations in the field of photography, including that involving colour, and for producing an early example of what has since been developed into the modern spectrohelioscope. He began his working life as an apprentice to a firm of architects and ended it as a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, having had a keen interest in astronomy since childhood.
A gas meter is a specialized flow meter, used to measure the volume of fuel gases such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Gas meters are used at residential, commercial, and industrial buildings that consume fuel gas supplied by a gas utility. Gases are more difficult to measure than liquids, because measured volumes are highly affected by temperature and pressure. Gas meters measure a defined volume, regardless of the pressurized quantity or quality of the gas flowing through the meter. Temperature, pressure, and heating value compensation must be made to measure actual amount and value of gas moving through a meter.
A spectrohelioscope is a type of solar telescope designed by George Ellery Hale in 1924 to allow the Sun to be viewed in a selected wavelength of light. The name comes from three Latin-based words: Spectro, referring to the optical spectrum, Helio, referring to the Sun and Scope, as in telescope.
Fellowship of the Royal Astronomical Society (FRAS) is a fellowship granted to individuals whose application is approved by the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
Thomas Thorp was born on 26 October 1850, the son of a farmer who worked land around Narrow Lane (now known as Victoria Avenue), Besses o' th' Barn, Whitefield, Lancashire. He was educated first at the local Park Lane School and subsequently at Manchester Grammar School, following which he was apprenticed to Maycock and Bell, a firm of architects and surveyors in Manchester. During his apprenticeship, he had a role in the town-planning of New Brighton, which was then rising as a Victorian resort town. He had an interest in the practical application of scientific knowledge, as did his inventive father, and a consequence of this trait was an inclination towards civil and mechanical engineering.Later in life Thorp was to be the appointed engineer for both the Local Board of Whitefield and also its District Council.
Besses o' th' Barn is an area of Whitefield within the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, in Greater Manchester, England. The ward population of Besses at the 2011 Census was 10,664. It lies between Radcliffe and Prestwich.
Whitefield is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Greater Manchester, England. It lies on undulating ground above the Irwell Valley, along the south bank of the River Irwell, 3 miles (4.8 km) south-southeast of Bury, and 4.9 miles (7.9 km) to the north-northwest of the city of Manchester. Prestwich and the M60 motorway lie just to the south.
Manchester Grammar School (MGS) is the largest independent day school for boys in the United Kingdom and is located in Manchester, England. Founded in 1515 as a free grammar school, it was formerly adjacent to Manchester Parish Church until 1931 when it moved to its present 28-acre site at Fallowfield. In accordance with its founder's wishes, MGS has remained a predominantly academic school and belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference.
As early as 1872, while still working for Maycock and Bell, he was sole patentee of a mechanism for tap valves.In 1875, he was jointly named with A. P. Bell, architect, on a patent application regarding improvements to the automation of gas lighting, and continued to design items for the gas industry thereafter. In 1880 he established a business for the manufacture of his designs, originally known as Thomas Thorp & Co., with premises at Narrow Lane, Whitefield.
A tap is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.
One significant innovation was the design, patented in 1889, [ citation needed ] The device was a major advance and, for example, the Manchester Institution of the Association of Gas Engineers and Manufacturers reported in 1898 thatfor the first practical mechanism that allowed gas to be dispensed by insertion of a penny into a meter, an early point-of-use prepayment system. Although frequently attributed as being his invention alone, the patent was jointly held with Thomas Gardiner Marsh.
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny (abbr. p) and the informal name of one American cent (abbr. ¢) as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin (abbr. c). It is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Canada, although one cent coins are no longer minted there. The name is also used in reference to various historical currencies also derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig. It may also be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen.
The consumption of gas has been greatly increased by the introduction of coin meters among the working class, who previously had rarely burned gas, and who but for the introduction of this class of meter, never would have done so. To people of this class, a supply of gas by coin meters is a great boon, and much appreciated. It is very much safer than lighting by oil, which it is rapidly superseding; and the cost in most cases is less.
Despite its practicality, the meter design of Thorp and Marsh was rapidly superseded and by 1894 J. Nasmith was reporting that it was "practically out of the running".The Edinburgh-based William Cowan and the Manchester business of Sawyer and Purves were among those who had been granted patents for improvements to the mechanism by that time.
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.
Around the same time, Thorp and Marsh were among the many people experimenting with the possibilities of using acetylene gas as an alternate to coal gas. Acetylene – produced by mixing calcium carbide and water – was thought to produce a better quality of light but there were practical difficulties to overcome. They discovered that adding the carbide to the water was less dangerous than adding the water to the carbide, and they surmounted problems related to gradual "choking" of the burners when in use by mixing air with the product. They also invented a safety valve that they claimed cut off the burner outlet in the not unusual event that the supply to it was interrupted, thus preventing unlit gas from being emitted when the supply was restored. This valve was capable of use in both acetylene and coal gas installations.
Thorp also invented the rotary gas meter in 1902, ... for economical regulation of gas delivery [that] has been very widely employed by manufacturers and public authorities." Other inventions included a push-tap for water and improvements to gas lamps and pneumatic tools.and, what his obituary describes as "a tiny device
Thorp retired from business at the age of 50 to devote more time to his scientific studies.An advertisement of 1906 shows Marsh as chairman of the Manchester-based Rotary Meter Company Ltd and director of a similarly named business in New York. The latter had bought the sole US and Canadian manufacturing rights for all products regarding which Thorp held or might in future hold US patents.
Thorp was a "scientific and mechanical genius". 8 inches (200 mm) Cooke equatorial telescope for his own observations. This device was fitted with a photo-visual objective, a spectroscope and other attachments that enabled it to be used for photography.In pursuit of his childhood interest in astronomy, he developed considerable skills in the manufacture of optical glass and both reflector and refractor telescopes. He also created celluloid diffraction grating replicas, polarising solar eyepieces and prominence spectroscopes that were widely used, as well as objective prisms. His high resolution diffracting grating replicas were significant advances of the ideas developed by Henry Rowland, whilst his multi-slit spectroscope was the first to enable the showing of both celestial and terrestrial objects and has formed the basis for the present day spectrohelioscope. Father Aloysius Cortie, of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, was one whom achieved good results from an example of the objective prisms. Eventually owning houses in Whitefield and also in Prestatyn, North Wales, he constructed observatories at each of these and favoured the
Thorp's innovative design for celluloid diffraction grating replicas won him the Wilde Premium for Original Research in 1901, principally in recognition of his paper of 1899 entitled Grating Films and their application to Colour Photography.He was also recognised by awards from other bodies, including international exhibitions. His diffraction gratings were particularly noted in an obituary, which said that they made
... the study of spectroscopic astrophysics possible to so many lovers of the science. In addition to putting these on the market at a moderate price, he was most lavish in his generous distribution of them to professional and amateur workers throughout the world.
Prior to his developments, details of which he published but did not patent,interested people had to rely upon the photographic methods that had been proposed by Lord Rayleigh and Izarn. Thorp's "brilliant idea", announced in 1898 and improved thereafter through experimentation and the development of new materials, was to take "a cast of the ruled surface in a transparent medium [comprising] a thin solution of celluloid in amyl acetate." He described his method on numerous occasions, including in a letter published in the edition of 29 December 1905 of the British Journal of Photography (reproduced in Popular Astronomy , 1906), He emphasised the need for a dust-free environment and a uniform drying of the solution as well as asserting that his was the "first method of producing optically useful replicas of gratings and one which after all has not in my opinion been superseded." By 1900 he was able to apply his developments to colour photography and he went on to demonstrate to the British Astronomical Association a method for projecting natural colours that used "three replicas adjusted to diffract the proper colour sensations to the eye".
His work with celluloid was not limited to investigation of its uses in astronomy. He reported in 1902 that he had demonstrated the explosive nature of the substance by substituting it for the cordite in a bullet and then firing that bullet through a 1 inch (25 mm) thick piece of wood. Similarly, although he used partial vacuums in his development of his diffraction gratings, he also investigated their use elsewhere as, for example, in his paper of 1903 entitled On the Production of Polished Metallic Surfaces having the Properties of Japanese "Magic" Mirrors. These and numerous other contributions – including experiments in soldering aluminium and the use of optics for gunsights – were reported to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, of which he had been elected a member on 21 January 1896. He served as member of the Society's Council for all but one year between 1902 and 1912, was a vice-president for three years and was offered, but refused, a nomination to be president.
Thorp was a member of expeditions to view the total solar eclipses of 1900 and 1905, which visited Algiers and Burgos, respectively.Examples of his inventions were used by various members of the parties.
Proposed by David G. Simpson, Thorp was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society on 11 April 1902.He was also a vice-president of the Manchester Astronomical Society, of which he had been a member since 1892.
Thorp died at Prestatyn on 13 June 1914, leaving a widow and three sons, one of whom – Franklin – also had involvements in the gas industry. He was buried at All Saints' Church, Stand, a few days later. He also left a partially developed scheme for the manufacture of a ruling machine that obviated the need for a screw drive, being controlled instead by a mercury clepsydra and micrometre valve, and had been working on the design of a cinema screen. Thorp's Cooke telescope was given by the family to Stand Grammar School. One obituarist remarked on his "unassuming and genial manner to all with whom he came into contact, and his readiness to explain and to make suggestions on any subject in which his wide knowledge could be of any assistance."
The business that he founded, Thomas Thorp & Co. Ltd, was finally liquidated in 1976.
Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle that treats each point in the wave-front as a collection of individual spherical wavelets. These characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength. Similar effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying refractive index, or when a sound wave travels through a medium with varying acoustic impedance. Diffraction has an impact on the acoustic space. Diffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, X-rays and radio waves.
In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions. The emerging coloration is a form of structural coloration. The directions of these beams depend on the spacing of the grating and the wavelength of the light so that the grating acts as the dispersive element. Because of this, gratings are commonly used in monochromators and spectrometers.
John Dalton FRS was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his research into colour blindness, sometimes referred to as Daltonism in his honour.
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor. He is known as an independent early developer of a successful incandescent light bulb, and is the person responsible for developing and supplying the first incandescent lights used to illuminate homes and public buildings, including the Savoy Theatre, London, in 1881.
Frits Zernike was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects. A stellar spectrum can reveal many properties of stars, such as their chemical composition, temperature, density, mass, distance, luminosity, and relative motion using Doppler shift measurements. Spectroscopy is also used to study the physical properties of many other types of celestial objects such as planets, nebulae, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.
A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input. The name is from the Greek roots mono-, "single", and chroma, "colour", and the Latin suffix -ator, denoting an agent.
Sir William Huggins was an English astronomer best known for his pioneering work in astronomical spectroscopy together with his wife Margaret Lindsay Huggins.
Carlyle Smith Beals, FRS was a Canadian astronomer.
Prof Henry Augustus Rowland FRS(For) HFRSE was an American physicist. Between 1899 and 1901 he served as the first president of the American Physical Society. He is remembered today particularly for the high quality of the diffraction gratings he made and for the work he did with them on the solar spectrum.
Sydney Chapman FRS was a British mathematician and geophysicist. His work on the kinetic theory of gases, solar-terrestrial physics, and the Earth's ozone layer has inspired a broad range of research over many decades.
Harry Edwin Wood was an English astronomer, director of the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, and discoverer of minor planets.
The British Astronomical Association (BAA) was formed in 1890 as a national body to support the UK's amateur astronomers.
The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, popularly known as the Lit & Phil, is a learned society in Manchester, England.
Warren De la Rue was a British astronomer, chemist, and inventor, most famous for his pioneering work in astronomical photography.
The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory is a solar observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. It is on the southern tip of the Palani Hills 4 km from Kodaikanal town, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu state, South India.
Sir Thomas Ralph Merton KBE, DSc, FRS was an English physicist, inventor and art collector. He is particularly noted for his work on spectroscopy and diffraction gratings.
Arthur Mason Worthington was an English physicist and educator. He is best known for his work on fluid mechanics, especially the physics of splashes; for observing those, he pioneered techniques of high speed photography. He also proposed the slug as a unit of inertial mass, and the pound-foot as a dedicated unit of torque.