Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath

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Secretary of State for the Northern Department
In office
7 March 1779 27 October 1779
Monarch George III
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by The Earl of Suffolk
Succeeded by The Viscount Stormont
In office
20 January 1768 21 October 1768
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Earl of Chatham
The Duke of Grafton
Preceded by Henry Seymour Conway
Succeeded by The Earl of Rochford
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
In office
9 November 1775 24 November 1779
Monarch George III
Prime Minister Lord North
Preceded by The Earl of Rochford
Succeeded by The Earl of Hillsborough
In office
21 October 1768 12 December 1770
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Duke of Grafton
Lord North
Preceded by The Earl of Shelburne
Succeeded by The Earl of Rochford
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
5 June 1765 7 August 1765
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Earl of Northumberland
Succeeded by The Earl of Hertford
Personal details
Born
The Hon. Thomas Thynne

13 September 1734
Died19 November 1796(1796-11-19) (aged 62)
St George Hanover Square
Westminster, Middlesex
Great Britain
Political party Tory
Spouse(s) Lady Elizabeth Bentinck (m. 1759)
Children6
Residence Longleat
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge
OccupationPolitician
Coat of arms of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, KG: Quarterly of 4: 1&4:Barry of ten or and sable (Botteville); 2&3: Argent, a lion rampant tail nowed and erect gules (Thynne) Coat of arms of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, KG, PC.png
Coat of arms of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, KG: Quarterly of 4: 1&4:Barry of ten or and sable (Botteville); 2&3: Argent, a lion rampant tail nowed and erect gules (Thynne)

Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, KG, PC (13 September 1734 19 November 1796), of Longleat in Wiltshire, was a British politician who held office under King George III. He served as Southern Secretary, Northern Secretary and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Between 1751 and 1789, he was known as the 3rd Viscount Weymouth. He is possibly best known for his role in the Falklands Crisis of 1770.

Order of the Garter Order of chivalry in England

The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and later the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Longleat stately home in Wiltshire, England, UK

Longleat is an English stately home and the seat of the Marquesses of Bath. It is a leading and early example of the Elizabethan prodigy house. It is adjacent to the village of Horningsham and near the towns of Warminster and Westbury in Wiltshire and Frome in Somerset. It is noted for its Elizabethan country house, maze, landscaped parkland and safari park. The house is set in 1,000 acres (400 ha) of parkland landscaped by Capability Brown, with 4,000 acres (1,600 ha) of let farmland and 4,000 acres (1,600 ha) of woodland, which includes a Center Parcs holiday village. It was the first stately home to open to the public, and the Longleat estate includes the first safari park outside Africa.

Contents

Early life

He was born on 13 September 1734, the eldest son and heir of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth (1710–1751) [1] by his wife Louisa Carteret (c.1712-1736), a daughter of John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, 2nd Baron Carteret (1690–1763). On her father's side, she was a great-granddaughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath (1628-1701), and her father's first-cousin was William Granville, 3rd Earl of Bath (1692-1711), on whose death the Earldom of Bath became extinct.

Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth English Viscount

Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth of Longleat House in Wiltshire was an English peer, descended from Sir John Thynne (c.1515-1580) builder of Longleat.

Louisa Thynne, Viscountess Weymouth, formerly Lady Louisa Carteret, was the second wife of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth. She was the daughter of John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, and his first wife, the former Frances Worsley.

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville British statesman

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, 7th Seigneur of Sark,, commonly known by his earlier title Lord Carteret, was a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; he worked extremely closely with the Prime Minister of the country, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, in order to manage the various factions of the Government. He was Seigneur of Sark from 1715 to 1720 when he sold the fief. He held the office of Bailiff of Jersey from 1715 to 1763.

Family origins

The Thynnes are descended from Sir John Thynne (c.1515-1580), the builder of Longleat House, the family seat in Wiltshire, who acquired vast estates after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Sir John owed his wealth and position to the favour of his master, the Lord Protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset. [2] He was comptroller of the household of the future Queen Elizabeth I of England. Another famous ancestor was Thomas Thynne (1648–1682), called on account of his wealth "Tom of Ten Thousand" and celebrated by Dryden as Issachar in Absalom and Achitophel , who was murdered in London in February 1682. [1]

John Thynne English Member of Parliament, died 1580

Sir John Thynne was the steward to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and a member of parliament. He was the builder of Longleat House and his descendants became Marquesses of Bath.

Wiltshire County of England

Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The county town was originally Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge.

Dissolution of the Monasteries legal event which disbanded religious residences in England, Wales and Ireland

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions. Although the policy was originally envisaged as increasing the regular income of the Crown, much former monastic property was sold off to fund Henry's military campaigns in the 1540s. He was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, and by the First Suppression Act (1536) and the Second Suppression Act (1539).

Career

He succeeded his father as 3rd Viscount Weymouth in January 1751 and served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for a short time during 1765, although he never visited that country. [3] Having become prominent in British politics, he was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department in January 1768 and acted with great promptitude during the unrest caused by John Wilkes and the Middlesex election of 1768. He was then attacked and libeled by Wilkes, who was consequently expelled from the House of Commons. [1]

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922). The office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy, and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, and later of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant.

Secretary of State for the Northern Department former cabinet position in Great Britain

The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Northern Department became the Home Office.

John Wilkes 18th-century English radical, journalist, and politician

John Wilkes was a British radical, journalist and politician. He was first elected a Member of Parliament in 1757. In the Middlesex election dispute, he fought for the right of his voters—rather than the House of Commons—to determine their representatives. In 1768, angry protests of his supporters were suppressed in the St George's Fields Massacre. In 1771, he was instrumental in obliging the government to concede the right of printers to publish verbatim accounts of parliamentary debates. In 1776, he introduced the first bill for parliamentary reform in the British Parliament.

Falklands Crisis

Before the close of 1768, he was transferred from the Northern Department to become Secretary of State for the Southern Department, but he resigned in December 1770 in the midst of the "Falklands Crisis", a dispute with Spain over the possession of the Falkland Islands. [1]

Secretary of State for the Southern Department position in the cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782

The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Southern Department became the Foreign Office.

The Falklands Crisis of 1770 was a diplomatic standoff between Great Britain and Spain over possession of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. These events were nearly the cause of a war between Britain and Spain — backed by France — and all three countries were poised to dispatch armed fleets to defend the rival claims to sovereignty of the barren but strategically important islands.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

American War of Independence

In November 1775, Weymouth returned to his former office of Secretary of State for the Southern Department, undertaking in addition the duties attached to the northern department for a few months in 1779, but he resigned both positions in the autumn of that year. [1] This period covered the American War of Independence.

Later life

He was High Steward of the Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield from 1781 until his death in November 1796, having been created Marquess of Bath in 1789. The title of Earl of Bath that had been held by his Granville ancestor was then unavailable, as it had been recreated for a member of the Pulteney family.

Marriage and issue

In 1759, he married Lady Elizabeth Bentinck, a daughter of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, by whom he had three sons and three daughters, including: [1]

Character

He was a man of considerable ability, especially as a speaker. According to modern standards, his habits were coarse, resembling those of his friend and frequent companion Charles James Fox. Horace Walpole refers frequently to his idleness and his drunkenness, and in early life at least "his great fortune he had damaged by such profuse play, that his house was often full of bailiffs."

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chisholm 1911.
  2. 'Parliamentary history : 1529–1629', in A History of the County of Wiltshire , vol. 5 (1957), pp. 111–132, accessed 7 July 2011
  3. Desmond Keenan (12 November 2014). Eighteenth Century Ireland 1703-1800 Society and History. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 514–. ISBN   978-1-4990-8082-7.
Attribution
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl Harcourt
Master of the Horse to Queen Charlotte
1763–1765
Succeeded by
The Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
Preceded by
The Earl of Northumberland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1765
Succeeded by
The Earl of Hertford
Preceded by
Henry Seymour Conway
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
1768
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochford
Preceded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1768–1770
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochford
Preceded by
The Duke of Grafton
Leader of the House of Lords
1770
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochford
Preceded by
The Earl of Rochford
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1775–1779
Succeeded by
The Earl of Hillsborough
Preceded by
The Earl of Suffolk
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
1779
Succeeded by
The Viscount Stormont
Preceded by
The Earl of Suffolk
Leader of the House of Lords
1779
Succeeded by
The Viscount Stormont
Court offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Ashburnham
Groom of the Stole
1782–1796
Succeeded by
The Duke of Roxburghe
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Lord Middleton
High Steward of Sutton Coldfield
1781–1796
Succeeded by
The Earl of Aylesford
Titles of nobility
New creation Marquess of Bath
1789–1796
Succeeded by
Thomas Thynne
Preceded by
Thomas Thynne
Viscount Weymouth
1751–1796

  1. Burke, Sir Bernard, (1938 ed) Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage. Shaw, London. p. 243
  2. 1 2 3 Woodfall, H. (1768). The Peerage of England; Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the Peers of that Kingdom Etc. Fourth Edition, Carefully Corrected, and Continued to the Present Time, Volume 6. p. 258.
  3. 1 2 Lee, Sidney; Edwards, A. S. G. (revised) (2004). "Thynne, William (d. 1546)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27426.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. Girouard, Mark, Thynne, Sir John (1515–1580), estate manager and builder of Longleat in Oxford Dictionary of Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)
  5. Booth, Muriel. "Thynne, John (?1550–1604), of Longleat, Wilts". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  6. Lancaster, Henry; Thrush, Andrew. "Thynne, Charles (c.1568–1652), of Cheddar, Som". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  7. Pugh, R. B.; Crittall, Elizabeth, eds. (1957). "Parliamentary history: 1529–1629". A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 5. British History Online. London: Victoria County History.
  8. Ferris, John P. "Thynne, Sir James (c.1605-70), of Longbridge Deverill, Wilts". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  9. Helms, M. W.; Ferris, John P. "Thynne, Sir Thomas (c.1610–c.69), of Richmond, Surr". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  10. Marshall, Alan (2008) [2004]. "Thynne, Thomas [nicknamed Tom of Ten Thousand] (1647/8–1682)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27423.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  11. Heath-Caldwell, J. J. "Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, 3rd Viscount Weymouth". JJ Heath-Caldwell. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  12. Hayton, D. W. "Thynne, Hon. Henry (1675-1708)". The History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  13. Dunaway, Stewart (2013). Lord John Carteret, Earl Granville: His Life History and the Granville Grants. Lulu. p. 33. ISBN   9781300878070.
  14. "Bath, Thomas Thynne". Encyclopedia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  15. Thorne, Roland. "Carteret [formerly Thynne], Henry Frederick". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  16. "Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath (1765–1837)". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  17. Escott, Margaret. "Thynne, Lord Henry Frederick (1797-1837), of 6 Grovesnor Square, Mdx". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  18. "John Thynne, 4th Marquess of Bath (1831-1896), Diplomat and landowner". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2 January 2016.