Thomas Thynne (died 1639)

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Longleat in the 17th century Longleat by Knyff edited.JPG
Longleat in the 17th century

Sir Thomas Thynne (ca. 1578–1639), of Longleat, Wiltshire, was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1601 and 1629.

Longleat stately home in Wiltshire, England, UK

Longleat is an English stately home and the seat of the Marquesses of Bath. It is a leading and early example of the Elizabethan prodigy house. It is adjacent to the village of Horningsham and near the towns of Warminster and Westbury in Wiltshire and Frome in Somerset. It is noted for its Elizabethan country house, maze, landscaped parkland and safari park. The house is set in 1,000 acres (400 ha) of parkland landscaped by Capability Brown, with 4,000 acres (1,600 ha) of let farmland and 4,000 acres (1,600 ha) of woodland, which includes a Center Parcs holiday village. It was the first stately home to open to the public, and the Longleat estate includes the first safari park outside Africa.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Landed gentry largely historical British social class, consisting of land owners who could live entirely off rental income

The landed gentry, or simply the gentry, is a largely historical British social class consisting in theory of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate. It was distinct from, and socially "below", the aristocracy or peerage, although in fact some of the landed gentry were wealthier than some peers, and many gentry were related to peers. They often worked as administrators of their own lands, while others became public, political, religious, and armed forces figures. The decline of this privileged class largely stemmed from the 1870s agricultural depression; however, there are still a large number of hereditary gentry in the UK to this day, many of whom transferred their landlord style management skills after the agricultural depression into the business of land agency, the act of buying and selling land.

Thynne was the son and heir of Sir John Thynne of Longleat, a knight of the shire, [1] and Joan Hayward, daughter of Sir Rowland Hayward, a Lord Mayor of London. [2]

Sir John Thynne of Longleat, Wiltshire, was an English landowner and Member of Parliament.

Rowland Hayward London merchant and Lord Mayor

Sir Rowland Hayward was a London merchant, and Lord Mayor of the City in both 1570 and 1591. Through his commercial activities he acquired considerable wealth, and was able to loan money to Queen Elizabeth I and purchase properties in several counties as well as houses in and near London. He entertained the Queen at King's Place in 1587.

Lord Mayor of London Mayor of the City of London and leader of the City of London Corporation

The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers, rights and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London.

Thynne first made his mark in May 1594, at the age of sixteen, when he clandestinely married Maria (or Mary) Touchet, also sixteen, a gentlewoman at the court of Queen Elizabeth and a daughter of Lord Audley. The two were married on the day they first met [3] and for some time kept their marriage secret because their fathers were bitterly opposed to each other. When their story became known, Thynne's father, John Thynne the Younger, tried unsuccessfully to have the marriage annulled. The story is said to have contributed to the inspiration for Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet . [4] With Maria, Thynne had three sons, before his wife died in childbirth. Two of these sons survived childhood, James Thynne (died 1670) and Sir Thomas Thynne. [5] [6]

A gentlewoman in the original and strict sense is a woman of good family, analogous to the Latin generosus and generosa. The closely related English word "gentry" derives from the Old French genterise, gentelise, with much of the meaning of the French noblesse and the German Adel, but without the strict technical requirements of those traditions, such as quarters of nobility.

Elizabeth I of England Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until 1603

Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.

George Tuchet, 1st Earl of Castlehaven

George Tuchet, 1st Earl of Castlehaven, was the son of Henry Tuchet, 10th Baron Audley and his wife, née Elizabeth Sneyd.

Maria's surviving correspondence between 1595 and 1611 was published by the Wiltshire Record Society in 1983 under the title Two Elizabethan Women: correspondence of Joan and Maria Thynne. [6] After the death of Maria in 1611, Thynne married secondly Catherine Howard, a daughter of Hon. Charles Howard, son of the first Viscount Howard and niece of Lord Howard of Bindon. With her he had further sons, including Sir Henry Frederick Thynne, 1st Baronet (1615–1680), ancestor of the Marquesses of Bath. [2] [5]

The Wiltshire Record Society is a text publication society in Wiltshire, England, which edits and publishes historic documents concerned with the history of Wiltshire.

Viscount Howard of Bindon was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1559 for Thomas Howard, second son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. His two sons, the second and third Viscount, both succeeded him in the title. As neither had any male children, the title became extinct on the death of the third Viscount in 1611. The title referred to Bindon Abbey in Dorset.

Thomas Howard, 3rd Viscount Howard of Bindon English politician

Thomas Howard, 3rd Viscount Howard of Bindon was an English peer and politician. He was a Knight of the Garter, Lord Lieutenant of Dorset 25 April 1601 – 1 March 1611, Custos Rotulorum of Dorset before 1605–1611, and Vice-Admiral of Dorset 1603–1611. He was the son of Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon, youngest son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. He succeeded to the viscouncy in 1590, upon the childless death of his elder brother, Henry. The title became extinct when he died in 1611 without male children.

In 1601 Thynne was elected Member of Parliament for Hindon. He was re-elected MP for Hindon in 1604. In the same year, he succeeded his father to the family estates and on his father's death he had himself returned at a by-election for the county of Wiltshire. However, this election was disallowed by the Commons on the grounds that a sitting member was not eligible to be returned for a second constituency. Thynne was High Sheriff of Wiltshire for 1607–08. [7] In 1621 he was elected for MP Heytesbury and was re-elected MP for Heytesbury in 1624. He was elected MP for Hindon again in 1625 and was re-elected MP for Hindon in 1626 and 1628.

Hindon was a parliamentary borough consisting of the village of Hindon in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1448 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. It was one of the most notoriously corrupt of the rotten boroughs, and bills to disfranchise Hindon were debated in Parliament on two occasions before its eventual abolition.

Wiltshire was a constituency of the House of Commons of England from 1290 to 1707, of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Among the estates Thynne inherited was one at Kempsford in Gloucestershire, where he built a new country house, demolishing an important fortified manor house which since the 13th century had defended a crossing of the River Thames. [8]

Kempsford village in United Kingdom

Kempsford is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England, about 2.5 miles (4 km) south of Fairford. RAF Fairford is located near the village. The population was around 1,120 at the 2011 census.

English country house larger mansion estate in England, UK

An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term also encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832. Frequently, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses.

Manor house country house that historically formed the administrative centre of a manor

A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manorial courts, communal meals with manorial tenants and great banquets. The term is today loosely applied to various country houses, frequently dating from the late medieval era, which formerly housed the gentry.

Thynne died on 1 August 1639.

Notes

  1. 'Parliamentary history : 1529–1629', in A History of the County of Wiltshire , vol. 5 (1957), pp. 111–132, accessed 7 July 2011
  2. 1 2 Sir Thomas Thynne at thepeerage.com, accessed 7 July 2011
  3. David Booy, Personal disclosures: an anthology of self-writings from the seventeenth century (2002), p. 41: "Maria Touchet (c. 1578–1611), the daughter of Lord Audley, married Thomas Thynne, the heir to Longleat, on the day she first met him, 16 May 1594. They were both 16."
  4. Cathy Hartley (15 April 2013). A Historical Dictionary of British Women. Routledge. p. 428. ISBN   978-1-135-35533-3.
  5. 1 2 Charles Mosley, ed., Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition (Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), vol. 1, p. 212
  6. 1 2 Alison D. Wall, ed., Two Elizabethan Women: correspondence of Joan and Maria Thynne, 1575–1611 (Wiltshire Record Society, vol. 38, 1983)
  7. Richard K. Evans, The Ancestry of Diana, Princess of Wales, for twelve generations (New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2007): "Nr. 4152: Sir Thomas Thynne, M.P. 1601, 1604, 1621, 1624, 1625, 1626 and 1628, Sheriff of Wiltshire 1607–8, etc, born ca. 1578 and died 1 August 1639."
  8. Anthony Emery, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300–1500: Southern England, p. 132
  9. Burke, Sir Bernard, (1938 ed) Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage. Shaw, London. p.243
  10. 1 2 3 Woodfall, H. (1768). The Peerage of England; Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the Peers of that Kingdom Etc. Fourth Edition, Carefully Corrected, and Continued to the Present Time, Volume 6. p. 258.
  11. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1898). "Thynne, William". Dictionary of National Biography . 56. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  12. Girouard, Mark, Thynne, Sir John (1515–1580), estate manager and builder of Longleat in Oxford Dictionary of Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)
  13. Booth, Muriel. "THYNNE, John (?1550-1604), of Longleat, Wilts". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  14. Lancaster, Henry; Thrush, Andrew. "THYNNE, Charles (c.1568-1652), of Cheddar, Som". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  15. Rugh, R. B.; Critall, Elizabeth. "'Parliamentary history : 1529-1629', in A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 5". British History Online. Victoria County History. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  16. Ferris, John P. "THYNNE, Sir James (c.1605-70), of Longbridge Deverill, Wilts". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  17. Helms, M. W.; Ferris, John P. "THYNNE, Sir Thomas (c.1610-c.69), of Richmond, Surr". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  18. Marshall, Alan. "Thynne, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2 January 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. Heath-Caldwell, J. J. "Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, 3rd Viscount Weymouth". JJ Heath-Caldwell. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  20. Hayton, D. W. "THYNNE, Hon. Henry (1675-1708)". The History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  21. Dunaway, Stewart (2013). Lord John Carteret, Earl Granville - His Life History and the Granville Grants. Lulu. p. 33. ISBN   9781300878070.
  22. "Bath, Thomas Thynne". Encyclopedia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  23. Thorne, Roland. "Carteret [formerly Thynne], Henry Frederick". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  24. "Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath (1765-1837)". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  25. Escott, Margaret. "THYNNE, Lord Henry Frederick (1797-1837), of 6 Grovesnor Square, Mdx". History of Parliament. The History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  26. "John Thynne, 4th Marquess of Bath (1831-1896), Diplomat and landowner". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Francis Zouche
Abraham Hartwell
Member of Parliament for Hindon
1601–1611
With: Sir George Paule 1601
Sir Edmund Ludlow
Succeeded by
Sir Edmund Ludlow
Sir Edwin Sandys
Preceded by
Sir Henry Ludlow
Walter Gowen
Member of Parliament for Heytesbury
1621–1624
With: Sir Henry Ludlow
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Berkeley
Edward Bysshe
Preceded by
Lawrence Hyde
Matthew Davies
Member of Parliament for Hindon
1625–1629
With: William Lambert 1625
Thomas Lambert 1626
Lawrence Hyde 1628–1629
Succeeded by
Parliament suspended until 1640

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