Thomas Tomlinson Cussons
|Born||24 November 1838|
|Died||18 March 1927 (aged 88)|
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Ashton (m. 1867)|
|Children||John W. Cussons (1867–1922) |
Alex T. Cussons (1875–1951)
|Parent(s)||George Cussons (1804–1858)|
Jane Cussons (1804–1882)
Thomas Tomlinson Cussons (24 November 1838 – 18 March 1927). Born in Kingston upon Hull, England to George Cussons (1804-1858) and his wife Jane Cussons (née Moss 1804-1882). Thomas was the head of the British soap manufacturing business Cussons & Son. Thomas established the 'Cussons' brand which has become one of the largest personal care brands in Britain.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea, 50 miles (80 km) east of Leeds, 34 miles (55 km) southeast of York and 54 miles (87 km) northeast of Sheffield. With a population of 260,645 (mid-2018 est.), Hull is the fourth-largest city in Yorkshire and the Humber.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Thomas qualified as a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1869.After qualifying Thomas opened a chemist in Holbeck, Leeds. In 1879 he sold the Holbeck branch and acquired an existing chemist in Louth. In the early 1880s Thomas opened a chemist in the town of Ossett. In Ossett he also operated as a wine merchant. He enjoyed an exclusive right to distribute W & A Gilbey Wines in Ossett. In 1891 he opened a further chemist in Swinton, Salford.
Louth is a market town and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. Louth is the principal town and centre for a large rural area of eastern Lincolnshire. Visitor attractions include St. James' Church, Hubbard's Hills, the market, many independent retailers, and Lincolnshire's last remaining cattle market.
Ossett is a market town within the metropolitan district of the City of Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is halfway between Dewsbury, to the west, and Wakefield, to the east. At the 2011 Census, the population was 21,231.
Swinton is a town in Greater Manchester, England, southwest of the River Irwell, 3.4 miles (5.5 km) northwest of Salford and 4.2 miles (6.8 km) northwest of Manchester, adjoining the towns of Pendlebury and Clifton. In 2014, it had a population of 22,931.
Initially the Cussons brand was attached principally to medicine. In 1893 the Cussons range included the following:
In 1897 Thomas acquired a glass blowing factory in Harpurhey, which marked the beginning of a great increase in business. Thomas' commercial activities laid the foundations for his son Alexander Tom Cussons who would make Cussons into a multinational brand and manufacture the famous Cussons Imperial Leather soap.
Harpurhey is an inner-city area of Manchester in North West England, three miles north east of the city centre. Historically in Lancashire, the population at the 2011 census was 17,652.
Alexander Tom Cussons. Born in Holbeck, Leeds, England to Thomas Tomlinson Cussons (1838–1927) and his wife Elizabeth Cussons. Alexander was the Chairman of Cussons Sons & Co, the largest independent soap manufacturer in Britain and maker of the brand Cussons Imperial Leather and other personal care products.
Imperial Leather is a brand of soaps, toiletries and healthcare products manufactured by PZ Cussons. The brand originates in Britain and is now available in a number of other countries including Australia, Denmark, Uganda, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates. The brand is not widely available in the United States but can be obtained via online sales and in some speciality shops.
In 1892 Thomas published extracts from letters of people recommending the Cussons brand.
Below is an extract from a clergyman to Mr. Cussons dated 28 March 1888:
Below is an extract from a Mr S. Smith dated 19 March 1888:
Below is an extract from a woman in service, dated 17 March 1888:
Snake oil is a euphemism for deceptive marketing. It refers to the petroleum-based mineral oil or "snake oil" that used to be sold as a cure-all elixir for many kinds of physiological problems. Many 19th-century United States and 18th-century European entrepreneurs advertised and sold mineral oil as "snake oil liniment", making frivolous claims about its efficacy as a panacea. William Rockefeller Sr. used "rock oil" as a cancer cure without the reference to snakes. Patent medicines that claimed to be a panacea were extremely common from the 18th century until the 20th, particularly among vendors masking addictive drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, alcohol and opium-based concoctions or elixirs, to be sold at medicine shows as medication or products promoting health.
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight.
Quackery, often synonymous with health fraud, is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices. A quack is a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, qualification or credentials they do not possess; a charlatan or snake oil salesman". The term quack is a clipped form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch: kwakzalver a "hawker of salve". In the Middle Ages the term quack meant "shouting". The quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice.
Witch-hazels or witch hazels are a genus of flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with four species in North America, and one each in Japan (H. japonica) and China (H. mollis). The North American species are occasionally called winterbloom.
A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum, is a commercial product advertised as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness.
Herbal medicine is the study of the botany and use of medicinal plants. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs. Although herbalism may apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines derived from natural sources, few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts.
Guaifenesin, sold under the brand name Mucinex among others, is a medication used to try to help cough out phlegm from the airways. It is unclear if it decreases coughing. Use is not recommended in children less than 6 years old. It is often used in combination with other medications. It is taken by mouth.
Oscillococcinum is a homeopathic preparation marketed to relieve influenza-like symptoms. It does not provide any benefit beyond that of sugar pills. It is a popular preparation, particularly in France. It is manufactured by Boiron, its sole manufacturer. Oscillococcinum is used in more than 50 countries and has been in production for over 65 years.
Cockburn is a Scottish surname that originated in the Borders region of the Scottish Lowlands. In the United States most branches of the same family have adopted the simplified spelling 'Coburn'; other branches have altered the name slightly to 'Cogburn'. The French branch of the family uses the spelling 'de Cockborne', with the middle "ck" being pronounced.
William Salmon (1644–1713) was an English empiric doctor and a writer of medical texts. He advertised himself as a "Professor of Physick". Salmon held an equivocal place in the medical community. He led apothecaries in opposing attempts by physicians to control the dispensing of medicines, and was derided by physicians as "the King of the Quacks". He has been described as "a brilliant publicist, but not much of a philosopher".
Blue mass was the name of a mercury-based medicine formerly common from the 17th to the 19th centuries. The oldest formula is ascribed to one Barbarossa, in a letter to Francis I of France.
The Beecham Group plc was a British pharmaceutical company. It was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Beecham, after having merged with SmithKline Beckman to become SmithKline Beecham, merged with Glaxo Wellcome to become GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). GSK still uses the Beechams brand name in the UK for its over-the-counter cold and flu relief products.
The history of aspirin begins with its synthesis and manufacture in 1899. Before that, salicylic acid had been used medicinally since antiquity. Medicines made from willow and other salicylate-rich plants appear in clay tablets from ancient Sumer as well as the Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt. Hippocrates referred to their use of salicylic tea to reduce fevers around 400 BC, and were part of the pharmacopoeia of Western medicine in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages. Willow bark extract became recognized for its specific effects on fever, pain and inflammation in the mid-eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century pharmacists were experimenting with and prescribing a variety of chemicals related to salicin, the active component of willow extract.
Souvenaid is a medical food in the form of a thick, yogurt-like drink that is marketed as helping people with Alzheimer's disease. It contains a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, phospholipids, choline, uridine monophosphate, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol equivalents), selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folic acid; this mixture is branded as Fortasyn Connect. As of 2017, the product had failed to show a significant effect in decreasing the rate of cognitive decline or delaying progression of Alzheimer's disease, but appeared to cause minor improvement in verbal memory in some people in the very early stages of the disease. The clinical trials that had been conducted were in people with very early Alzheimer's disease and excluded people who ate recommended amounts of food that included fish oil.
Emile Doo's Chemist Shop is an exhibition at the Black Country Living Museum in England. It was originally situated at 358 Halesowen Road, Netherton, before being rebuilt on the museum site.
James Thomas Law (1790–1876) was an English cleric, the chancellor of the diocese of Lichfield from 1821.
Thomas Kirkland M.D. (1721–1798) was an English physician and medical writer.
Bile Beans was a laxative and tonic first marketed in the 1890s. The product supposedly contained substances extracted from a hitherto unknown vegetable source by a fictitious chemist known as Charles Forde. In the early years Bile Beans were marketed as "Charles Forde's Bile Beans for Biliousness", and sales relied heavily on newspaper advertisements. Among other cure-all claims, Bile Beans promised to "disperse unwanted fat" and "purify and enrich the blood".
Thomas Corbett (1780–1857) was a Shaker brother of the Canterbury community in the state of New Hampshire who was well known nationally for his botanical medicines and innovative cures as a medical doctor and pharmacist.
| Head of Cussons & Son Partnership|
Alexander Tom Cussons