Thomas Torrance (1871–1959), born in Shotts, Scotland, was a Scottish Protestant missionary to China. He was first sent there by the China Inland Mission (CIM), and later by The American Bible Society. He married Annie Elizabeth Sharp (1883–1980) of the CIM in 1911. He was the father of the 20th century theologian, Thomas F. Torrance.
Torrance was born in Shotts, Scotland in 1871. He came from a strong evangelical Church of Scotland background.He attended Hulme Cliff College in Derbyshire from 1892 to 1894, and then studied at Livingstone College, London from 1894 to 1895. After finishing his training at Cliff and Livingstone Colleges for missionary service, he was first sent to Chengdu, Sichuan in 1895, by the China Inland Mission (CIM). Torrance was stationed in Western Szechuan, from 1896 to 1910 as a missionary. While he was there, the Boxer Uprising of 1900 occurred.
Torrance had a number of disagreements with the CIM and eventually left and returned to Scotland in 1910. While at the Edinburgh 1910 World Missionary Conference, he met Dr. John R. Hykes, who was head of the American Bible Society (ABS) in Shanghai. Hykes persuaded him to return to China to take over the West China agency of the ABS in Sichuan, based in Chengdu.
In 1911, Torrance married Annie Elizabeth Sharp who was also a member of the CIM, and was stationed in Kuanshien.The couple had six children who were all born in China: Mary, Thomas F., Grace, Margaret, James, and David.
Due to communist troubles[ clarification needed ] under Chiang Kai-shek, the Torrance family left China in 1927. They settled in Scotland. Thomas Torrance would return to China to continue his missionary work, without his family, for seven years, but leave China for the final time in 1934 due to the Chinese Civil War.
Torrance is known for discovering the Chi'ang people,who he believed belonged to the Lost Tribes of Israel. He was also instrumental in establishing the West China Union University Archaeological Museum.
He died in Edinburgh in 1959.
David Livingstone was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late 19th-century Victorian era. He had a mythic status that operated on a number of interconnected levels: Protestant missionary martyr, working-class "rags-to-riches" inspirational story, scientific investigator and explorer, imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of British commercial and colonial expansion.
Torrance may refer to:
James Hudson Taylor was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission. Taylor spent 51 years in China. The society that he began was responsible for bringing over 800 missionaries to the country who began 125 schools and directly resulted in 18,000 Christian conversions, as well as the establishment of more than 300 stations of work with more than 500 local helpers in all eighteen provinces.
Karl Friedrich August Gützlaff, anglicised as Charles Gutzlaff, was a German Lutheran missionary to the Far East, notable as one of the first Protestant missionaries in Bangkok, Thailand (1828) and in Korea (1832). He was also the first Lutheran missionary to China. He was a magistrate in Ningpo and Chusan and the second Chinese Secretary of the British administration in Hong Kong.
Thomas Forsyth Torrance, commonly referred to as T. F. Torrance, was a Scottish Protestant theologian and minister. Torrance served for 27 years as professor of Christian dogmatics at New College, in the University of Edinburgh. He is best known for his pioneering work in the study of science and theology, but he is equally respected for his work in systematic theology. While he wrote many books and articles advancing his own study of theology, he also edited the translation of several hundred theological writings into English from other languages, including the English translation of the thirteen-volume, six-million-word Church Dogmatics of Swiss theologian Karl Barth, as well as John Calvin's New Testament Commentaries. He was a member of the famed Torrance family of theologians.
Protestant Christianity entered China in the early 19th century, taking root in a significant way during the Qing dynasty. Some historians consider the Taiping Rebellion to have been influenced by Protestant teachings. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an increase in the number of Christian practitioners in China. According to a survey published in 2010 there are approximately 40 million Protestants in China.
OMF International is an international and interdenominational Protestant Christian missionary society with an international centre in Singapore. It was founded in Britain by Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865.
Benjamin Broomhall was a British advocate of foreign missions, administrator of the China Inland Mission, and author. Broomhall served as the General Secretary of the China Inland Mission (CIM),. A boyhood friend of James Hudson Taylor, he became husband to Hudson Taylor’s sister Amelia. As General Secretary of the CIM, he was involved in fund-raising and recruiting missionaries to send to China and acted as editor of the mission magazine, "China's Millions".
Marshall B. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. He also authored many books on the subject of Chinese missionary work. He was the most famous son of the anti-opium trade activist and General Secretary of the CIM Benjamin Broomhall and Amelia Hudson Taylor. Thus he was also the nephew of the founder of the mission, James Hudson Taylor.
Henry (Harry) Grattan Guinness was an Irish Protestant Christian preacher, evangelist and author. He was the great evangelist of the Evangelical awakening and preached during the Ulster Revival of 1859 which drew thousands to hear him. He was responsible for training and sending hundreds of "faith missionaries" all over the world.
In the early 19th century, Western colonial expansion occurred at the same time as an evangelical revival – the Second Great Awakening – throughout the English-speaking world, leading to more overseas missionary activity. The nineteenth century became known as the Great Century of modern religious missions.
Frederick William Baller was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, Chinese linguist, translator, educator and sinologist.
Charles Henry Judd, was a British Protestant missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. He was among the first to bring news of the Gospel to Guizhou, Hunan, and Hebei during the late Qing Dynasty when travel was limited to walking or river boat journeys.
Emil Fischbacher巴醫生 was a Scottish Protestant Christian missionary to Xinjiang. He served with the China Inland Mission.
Robert Henry Mathews (1877–1970) was an Australian missionary and Sinologist, best known for his 1931 A Chinese-English Dictionary: Compiled for the China Inland Mission by R. H. Mathews, which was subsequently revised by Harvard University Press in 1943. He served with the China Inland Mission from 1906, before retiring to Australia in 1945.
Norman Howard Cliff (1925–2007) was a British Protestant author who wrote about Christianity and the history of Protestant missions in China.
Characteristic of Christianity in the 19th century were Evangelical revivals in some largely Protestant countries and later the effects of modern Biblical scholarship on the churches. Liberal or modernist theology was one consequence of this. In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church strongly opposed liberalism and culture wars launched in Germany, Italy, Belgium and France. It strongly emphasized personal piety. In Europe there was a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism. In Protestantism, pietistic revivals were common.
The Torrance family includes several well-known modern Scottish theologians and clergymen, primarily associated with the Church of Scotland. The patriarch of the Torrance family of theologians is Thomas Torrance (1871–1959), a Scottish missionary to China and father of Mary, Thomas F., Grace, Margaret, James, David.
David Wishart Torrance, commonly known as David W. Torrance, is a retired Church of Scotland minister and part of the well-known Torrance family of theologians and Christian ministers. He is the youngest of six children to Rev Thomas Torrance (1871-1959) and Annie Elizabeth Torrance (1883-1980), both missionaries to Chengdu, Sichuan of West China. Like his two brothers, Thomas F. Torrance and James B. Torrance, David became a church minister in the Church of Scotland. Unlike his two brothers, he did not go onto academic work. David continued in church ministry until his retirement in 1991.
Mary Bell and Annie (Ann) Bell were pioneering Christian Missionaries and members of the China Inland Mission (CIM). They were born in Great Waltham, Essex, the twin daughters of William Bell and his wife Sophia. The family were raised as members of the Little Waltham Independent Congregational Church. Mary travelled to China as a member of the Lammermuir Party in 1866 and subsequently married William David Rudland, a fellow missionary and member of the CIM. Annie followed her sister to China a year and a half later, sailing on the Clipper Taitsing. She subsequently married Edward Fishe, also a fellow missionary with the CIM. Both Mary and Annie worked alongside their husbands in the various mission stations where they were based. They gave Bible classes to the local women and established and ran schools for local children. Their work was instrumental not only in spreading the gospels, but crucially, in establishing and building trust within the local communities.