Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 27, 1985) was an American inventor whose research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind". For most of Brown's life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. The phenomena came to be called the "Biefeld–Brown effect" and "electrogravitics".
In recent years Brown's research has had an influence in the community of amateur experimenters who build "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. There are still claims that Brown discovered antigravity, an idea popular with the unidentified flying object (UFO) community and spawning many conspiracy theories.
Thomas Townsend Brown was born into a wealthy construction family in Zanesville, Ohio in 1905. His parents were Lewis K. and Mary Townsend Brown. Thomas was interested in electronics from early childhood. His wealthy parents indulged their son's interests, buying him his own experimental equipment. He started what would be a lifelong series of experiments with electrical phenomena and began to investigate what he thought was an electro-gravity phenomenon while still in high school.
For two years in 1922 and 1923 Thomas Brown attended Doane Academy, a preparatory school associated with Granville, Ohio's Denison University, graduating in June 1923. In the fall of 1923 he entered the California Institute of Technology. He struggled with the required curriculum of a freshman student and to help Thomas in his school work his parents set up a fully provisioned private laboratory in the family home in Pasadena, California. Here he demonstrated his ideas on electricity and gravity to invited guests such as the physicist and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. Millikan told the freshman student his ideas were impossible and advised him to complete his college education before trying to develop such theories. Brown left Caltech after his first year. In 1924 he attended Denison University, but left there after a year as well.
In September 1928 Thomas Townsend Brown married Josephine Beale, daughter of the Zanesville, Ohio resident Clifford Beale.
In 1930 Brown enlisted in the United States Navy as an apprentice seaman. After completing basic training, based on his background in experimental electrical research, he was ordered to report to duty at the United States Naval Research Laboratory in Anacostia, D.C. on March 16, 1931. He performed the dual roles of a rank-and-file sailor and a research assistant on the Navy submarine S-48 in the Navy-Princeton gravity expedition to the West Indies in 1932. In 1933 he was assigned to the yacht Caroline (loaned to the Smithsonian Institution for scientific work by Eldridge R. Johnson) to operate a sonic sounding device during the Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Expedition to the Puerto Rico Trench in 1933.Brown was assigned from the Naval Research Laboratory with the primary duties of sonar and radio operator and had little involvement in scientific work. In 1933 Brown lost his job at the Naval Research Lab due to Depression era budget cutbacks so he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve.
Brown found a job during the 1930s as a soil engineer for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and then as an administrator for the Ohio Civilian Conservation Corps. Thomas Brown and Josephine were divorced in 1937 for a short while, remarrying in September 1940. Also in 1937 Thomas Brown re-enlisted in the US Navy.
In 1938 Brown was promoted to Lieutenant and in 1939 was assigned for a few months as a material engineer for the Navy's flying boats being built at the Glenn L. Martin Company in Maryland. He was engaged in magnetic and acoustic mine-sweeping research and development under the Bureau of Ships in Washington D.C. from October, 1940 to March, 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet Radar School in Norfolk, Virginia in May 1942. In October 1942 Brown was discharged from navy service with Brown requesting to resign "for the good of the naval service in order to escape trial by General Court Martial" and with his official discharge exam listing "no comment" as to the reasons why.After 1944 he worked as a radar consultant to the Lockheed-Vega Aircraft Corporation.
After leaving Lockheed, Brown moved to Hawaii where he was temporarily a consultant to the Pearl harbor Navy Yard due to Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Arthur W. Radford's interest in Brown's ideas on Gravitor devices, although the work was looked on more as a curiosity than any type of workable device. In 1952 Brown moved to Cleveland in hopes of selling his Gravitor device to the military establishment but there was little interest in it. In 1955, Brown went to England, then to France. In research testing for the Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du Sud-Ouest (SNCASO), Brown demonstrated what he thought was an antigravity effect in a vacuum with his device. Funding was cut off when SNCASO was merged with SNCASE, forcing Brown to return to the U.S. in 1956.
Brown became involved in the subject of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and in 1956 helped found the National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) although he was forced out as director in 1957 with allegations that Brown was using funds to further his own anti-gravity research.
In 1958 Brown worked as a research and development consultant for Agnew Bahnson's Whitehall Rand Project, an anti-gravity venture at the Bahnson Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. That same year Brown setup his own anti-gravity corporation, Rand International Limited. He filed several patents but his ideas met with little success. In the early 1960s he worked as a physicist for Electrokinetics Inc., of Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. and then went into semi-retirement, living in California. Thomas Townsend Brown died on October 22, 1985.
In 1921 while experimenting in the lab his parents had set up for him while he was still in high school, Brown discovered an unusual effect while experimenting with a Coolidge tube, a type of X-ray vacuum tube with two asymmetrical electrodes. Placing it on a balance scale with the tube's positive electrode facing up, when the power was on the tube's mass seemed to decrease. When the tube's electrode was facing down the tube's mass seemed to increase.Brown was convinced that he had managed to influence gravity electrically. At Caltech in 1923 Brown tried to convince his instructors about his theories via inviting them to his home laboratory, but they showed little interest. He also invited the press and the May 26, 1924 edition Los Angeles Evening Express ran a story on Brown titled "Claims Gravity is a Push, not a Pull." After quitting Caltech Brown studied one year at Denison University where he claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld although the present day Denison University claims they have no record of such experiments being carried out, or of any association between Brown and Biefeld.
Working in his home lab Brown developed an electrical device he called a "gravitor" or "gravitator", consisting of a block of insulating or dielectric material with electrodes at either end. He received a British patent for it in November 1928. In demonstrations Brown would mount the unit as a pendulum, apply electrical power, causing the unit to move in one direction. In 1929 Brown published "How I Control Gravity", in Science and Invention, where he claimed these devices were producing a mysterious force that interacted with the pull of gravity. He envisioned a future where, if his device could be scaled up, "Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future" or even "fantastic 'space cars'" to Mars.
Brown spent the rest of his life working in his spare time and sometimes in funded projects trying to prove his ideas on electricity's effect on gravity. He proposed his gravitator as a means of propulsion to General Motors executives in 1930 and as ship propulsion while he was at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1932. After World War II Brown sought to develop and sell his as a means of propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. At some point the phenomenon was given the name "Electrogravitics" based on his belief this was an electricity/gravity phenomenon.At some point it also gained the moniker "Biefeld–Brown effect", probably coined by Brown to claim Biefeld as his mentor and co-experimenter.
Brown refined his invention over the years and eventually came up with designs consisting of metal plates or disks charged with 25,000 to 200,000 volts that would produce a propulsive force which he continued to claim was an anti-gravity force.Brown demonstrated a working apparatus to an audience of scientists and military officials in the US, England, and France. Research in the phenomenon was popular in the mid-1950s, at one point the Glenn L. Martin Company placed advertisements looking for scientists who were "interested in gravity", but rapidly declined in popularity thereafter (see United States gravity control propulsion research).
A physicist invited to observe Brown's disk device in the early 50s noted during the demonstration that its motivation force was the well known phenomenon of "electric wind", and not anti-gravity, saying “I’m afraid these gentlemen played hooky from their high school physics classes….”Scientists who have since studied Brown's devices have not found any anti-gravity effect, and have attributed the noticed motive force to the more well understood phenomenon of ionic drift or "ion wind" from the air particles, some of which still remained even when Brown put his device inside a vacuum chamber.
In 1979, the author Charles Berlitz and ufologist William L. Moore published The Philadelphia Experiment: Project Invisibility, which purported to be a factual account about the Philadelphia Experiment where a United States Navy experiment accidentally teleported the warship USS Eldridge. Chapter 10 of the book was titled "The Force Fields of Townsend Brown", retelling of Brown's early work and claiming he was involved in the experiment and implying Brown's electrogravitics was the propulsion being used by UFOs. Electrogravitics is also popular with other conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering the B-2 Stealth Bomber and UFOs and that it may have become a classified subject by 1957.There are further claims that it can be used to generate "free energy".
Brown's research and the "Biefeld–Brown effect" has since become something of a popular pursuit around the world, with amateur experimenters replicating his early experiments in the form of "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage.
Electrical phenomena are commonplace and unusual events that can be observed and that illuminate the principles of the physics of electricity and are explained by them. Electrical phenomena are a somewhat arbitrary division of electromagnetic phenomena.
The Philadelphia Experiment is an alleged military experiment supposed to have been carried out by the U.S. Navy at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, sometime around October 28, 1943. The U.S. Navy destroyer escort USS Eldridge was claimed to have been rendered invisible to enemy devices.
The Biefeld–Brown effect is an electrical phenomenon that produces an ionic wind that transfers its momentum to surrounding neutral particles. It describes a force observed on an asymmetric capacitor when high voltage is applied to the capacitor's electrodes. Once suitably charged up to high DC potentials, a thrust at the negative terminal, pushing it away from the positive terminal, is generated. The effect was named by inventor Thomas Townsend Brown who claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld, a former teacher of Brown whom Brown claimed was his mentor and co-experimenter at Denison University in Ohio.
The Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project (BPP) was a research project funded by NASA from 1996-2002 to study various proposals for revolutionary methods of spacecraft propulsion that would require breakthroughs in physics before they could be realized. The project ended in 2002, when the Advanced Space Transportation Program was reorganized and all speculative research was cancelled. During its six years of operational funding, this program received a total investment of $1.2 million.
Anti-gravity is a hypothetical phenomenon of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit, or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift. Anti-gravity is a recurring concept in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. Examples are the gravity blocking substance "Cavorite" in H. G. Wells's The First Men in the Moon and the Spindizzy machines in James Blish's Cities in Flight.
Dr. Paul Alfred was a German-American electrical engineer, astronomer and teacher.
The Dean drive was a device created and promoted by inventor Norman Lorimer Dean (1902–1972) that he claimed to be a reactionless drive. Dean claimed that his device was able to generate a uni-directional force in free space, in violation of Newton's third law of motion from classical physics. His claims generated notoriety because, if true, such a device would have had enormous applications, completely changing human transport, engineering, space travel and more. Dean made several controlled private demonstrations of a number of different devices; however, no working models were ever demonstrated publicly or subjected to independent analysis and Dean never presented any rigorous theoretical basis for their operation. Analysts conclude that the motion seen in Dean's device demonstrations was likely reliant on asymmetrical frictional resistance between the device and the surface on which the device was set, resulting in the device moving in one direction when in operation, driven by the vibrations of the apparatus.
An ion-propelled aircraft or, shortened ionocraft, is an aircraft that uses electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to provide lift or thrust in the air without requiring combustion or moving parts. Current designs do not produce sufficient thrust for manned flight or useful loads.
Eugene Podkletnov is a Russian ceramics engineer known for his claims made in the 1990s of designing and demonstrating gravity shielding devices consisting of rotating discs constructed from ceramic superconducting materials.
Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study of the dynamics of electrically charged fluids. It is the study of the motions of ionized particles or molecules and their interactions with electric fields and the surrounding fluid. The term may be considered to be synonymous with the rather elaborate electrostrictive hydrodynamics. ESHD covers the following types of particle and fluid transport mechanisms: electrophoresis, electrokinesis, dielectrophoresis, electro-osmosis, and electrorotation. In general, the phenomena relate to the direct conversion of electrical energy into kinetic energy, and vice versa.
Electrogravitics is claimed to be an unconventional type of effect or anti-gravity force created by an electric field's effect on a mass. The name was coined in the 1920s by the discoverer of the effect, Thomas Townsend Brown, who spent most of his life trying to develop it and sell it as a propulsion system. Through Brown's promotion of the idea it was researched for a short while by aerospace companies in the 1950s. Electrogravitics is popular with conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering flying saucers and the B-2 Stealth Bomber.
A reactionless drive is a hypothetical device producing motion without the exhaust of a propellant. A propellantless drive is not necessarily reactionless when it constitutes an open system interacting with external fields; but a reactionless drive is a particular case of a propellantless drive that is a closed system, presumably in contradiction with the law of conservation of momentum. Reactionless drives are often considered similar to a perpetual motion machine. The name comes from Newton's third law, often expressed as, "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."
The Woodward effect, also referred to as a Mach effect, is part of a hypothesis proposed by James F. Woodward in 1990. The hypothesis states that transient mass fluctuations arise in any object that absorbs internal energy while undergoing a proper acceleration. Harnessing this effect could generate a reactionless thrust, which Woodward and others claim to measure in various experiments.
A radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity thruster is a device concept that is claimed to be a spacecraft thruster. It is purported to generate thrust by reflecting microwaves internally in the device, in violation of the law of conservation of momentum and other laws of physics. The device is also known as an EmDrive and has been often referred to by the media as the Impossible Drive. It was introduced in 2001 by Roger Shawyer.
Die Glocke was a purported top-secret Nazi scientific technological device, secret weapon, or Wunderwaffe. First described by Polish journalist and author Igor Witkowski in Prawda o Wunderwaffe (2000), it was later popularized by military journalist and author Nick Cook who associated it with Nazi occultism, antigravity and free energy research. Mainstream reviewers have criticized claims about Die Glocke as being pseudoscientific, recycled rumors, and a hoax. Die Glocke and other alleged Nazi "miracle weapons" have been dramatized in video games, television shows, and novels.
Sedimentation potential occurs when dispersed particles move under the influence of either gravity or centrifugation in a medium. This motion disrupts the equilibrium symmetry of the particle's double layer. While the particle moves, the ions in the electric double layer lag behind due to the liquid flow. This causes a slight displacement between the surface charge and the electric charge of the diffuse layer. As a result, the moving particle creates a dipole moment. The sum of all of the dipoles generates an electric field which is called sedimentation potential. It can be measured with an open electrical circuit, which is also called sedimentation current.
American interest in "gravity control propulsion research" intensified during the early 1950s. Literature from that period used the terms anti-gravity, anti-gravitation, baricentric, counterbary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion. Their publicized goals were to discover and develop technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion. Although general relativity theory appeared to prohibit anti-gravity propulsion, several programs were funded to develop it through gravitation research from 1955 to 1974. The names of many contributors to general relativity and those of the golden age of general relativity have appeared among documents about the institutions that had served as the theoretical research components of those programs. The existence and 1950s emergence of the gravity control propulsion research have not been a subject of controversy for aerospace writers, critics, and conspiracy theory advocates, but their rationale, effectiveness, and longevity have been the objects of contested views.
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