Thomas Turner, FRCS, FLS , (13 August 1793 – 17 December 1873) was an English surgeon known primarily for his involvement in developing medical education outside its then traditional base of London. He established a medical school in Manchester and was both a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Linnean Society of London.
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.7 million, and third-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.3 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council.
The youngest child of Edmund Turner, a banker of Truro, and Joanna his wife, daughter of Richard Ferris, he was born there on 13 August 1793. He was educated at Truro grammar school under its headmaster Cornelius Cardew, and was then apprenticed to Nehemiah Duck, one of the surgeons to St Peter's Hospital, Bristol.
Truro is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England. It is Cornwall's county town and only city and centre for administration, leisure and retail. Truro's population was recorded as 18,766 in the 2011 census. People from Truro are known as Truronians. As the southernmost city in mainland Britain, Truro grew as a centre of trade from its port and then as a stannary town for the tin mining industry. Its cathedral was completed in 1910. Places of interest include the Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro Cathedral, the Hall for Cornwall, and Cornwall's Courts of Justice.
St Peter's Hospital, Bristol could be found to the rear of St Peter's church until it was destroyed in the Bristol Blitz in 1940.
Turner left Bristol at the end of his apprenticeship for London, where, in the autumn of 1815, he entered as a student under Astley Paston Cooper, at the united borough hospitals of Guy and St. Thomas. He was admitted a licentiate of the London Society of Apothecaries and a member of the London College of Surgeons in 1816, and then went to Paris, where he spent a year. In 1817 he was appointed house surgeon at the infirmary of Manchester. He held the post until September 1820, when illness forced him to resign.
Turner then settled in Manchester, at a house in Piccadilly in the Manchester city centre. He was appointed secretary of the Manchester Natural History Society, and was also elected a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, where he saw much of John Dalton; on 18 April 1823 he was elected one of the six councillors of the society.
Manchester city centre is the central business district of Manchester, England, within the boundaries of Trinity Way, Great Ancoats Street and Whitworth Street. The City Centre ward had a population of 17,861 at the 2011 census.
The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, popularly known as the Lit & Phil, is a learned society in Manchester, England.
John Dalton FRS was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his research into colour blindness, sometimes referred to as Daltonism in his honour.
On 1 November 1822 Turner in the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society began a successful series of lectures on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the human body. Other courses were given, and in 1824 Turner delivered an address in which he developed a plan for a school of medicine and surgery in Manchester. The suggestion was well received, and in October 1824 a suitable building was engaged and opened in Pine Street, where Dalton gave a course of lectures on pharmaceutical chemistry. A medico-chirurgical society for students was also established, and in 1825 the Pine Street medical school was organised, the first major provincial school of medicine in England. The Edinburgh College of Surgeons recognised the course of instruction given at Manchester in February 1825; the London College was more reluctant, but Astley Cooper intervened and consent was obtained. Sir James McGrigor on behalf of the medical department of the Navy and Army recognised the course 20 August 1827.
Turner was appointed surgeon to the Deaf and Dumb Institution in 1825. He moved shortly after his marriage in 1826 from Piccadilly to a house in the upper part of King Street, and in the autumn of 1830 to Mosley Street, where he lived the rest of his life. In August 1830 he was elected a surgeon to the Manchester Royal Infirmary, and soon acquired a substantial medical practice.
King Street is one of the most important thoroughfares of Manchester city centre, England. Formerly the centre of the north-west banking industry it has become progressively dominated by expensive shops.
Mosley Street is a street in Manchester, England. It runs between its junction with Piccadilly Gardens and Market Street to St Peter's Square. Beyond St Peter's Square it becomes Lower Mosley Street. It is the location of several Grade II and Grade II* listed buildings.
Manchester Royal Infirmary is a hospital in Manchester, England, founded by Charles White in 1752. It is now part of Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, sharing buildings and facilities with several other hospitals.
On 31 July 1832 Turner laid the foundation of a new and larger lecture-theatre, which was opened in the following October. The medical school progressed steadily under Turner's control, and the next few years witnessed the closing of the rival Mount Street and Marston Street schools of medicine and the growth of the Pine Street school. The medical school in Chatham Street entered into an agreement with the Pine Street school in 1859, and the Manchester Royal School of Medicine came into existence. In 1872 it was amalgamated with Owens College as its medical faculty, Turner was invited to give the inaugural address, and a sum of money was set apart for the "Turner Medical Prize" in commemoration of his services.
In 1843 Turner had been appointed honorary professor of physiology at the Manchester Royal Institution, where, with the exception of two years, he delivered an annual course of lectures until 1873. He was nominated a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1843, and he served on its council from 1865 to 1873. He was occupied from 1852 with the Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association, and the condition of factory hands.
His early lectures at the Manchester Royal Institution utilised phrenological casts created by William Bally.
Turner died in Manchester on 17 December 1873, and was buried in the churchyard of Marton, near Skipton-in-Craven. He had worked to break the monopoly of the London medical schools, and for the principle of state medicine.
On 3 March 1826 Turner married Anna, daughter of James Clarke, of Medham, near Newport, Isle of Wight.
Peter Mark Roget was a British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer. He is best known for publishing, in 1852, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, a classified collection of related words.
Andrew Combe was a Scottish physician and phrenologist.
John Elliotson, M.D., M.D.(Oxford, 1821), F.R.C.P.(London, 1822), F.R.S. (1829), professor of the principles and practice of medicine at University College London (1832), senior physician to University College Hospital (1834) — and, in concert with William Collins Engledue M.D., the co-editor of The Zoist.
Francis Kiernan FRS was an anatomist and physician.
Robert Bentley Todd was an Irish-born physician who is best known for describing the condition postictal paralysis in his Lumleian Lectures in 1849 now known as Todd's palsy. He was the younger brother of noted writer and minister James Henthorn Todd.
Richard Quain was an English anatomist and surgeon, born at Fermoy, Ireland, a brother of Jones Quain. He studied medicine in London and in Paris. He was appointed demonstrator in 1828 and professor of anatomy in 1832 at the University of London, resigning in 1850, and assistant surgeon in 1834 and surgeon in 1848 to the North London Hospital, from which he resigned in 1866. He was president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1868.
Robert James Graves, F.R.C.S. was an eminent Irish surgeon after whom Graves' disease takes its name. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, Fellow of the Royal Society of London and the co-founder of the Dublin Journal of Medical Science. He is also the uncredited inventor of the second-hand on watches.
John Haighton MD, FRS, was an English physician and physiologist.
Robert Dunn was a British surgeon.
Charles James Blasius Williams was an English physician. He was an early adopter of new techniques of physical examination, and became known as a specialist in diseases of the chest.
James Macartney was an anatomist. He began life as an Irish volunteer in 1780, and was afterwards educated at the endowed classical school at Armagh, and then at a private school. He was associated for a time with the Sheares brothers and Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the United Irishmen but, being dissatisfied with their programme, he cut himself adrift and began to study medicine.
Thomas Wormald (1802−1873) was an English surgeon.
The Manchester Royal School of Medicine has its origins in a medical teaching establishment opened on Pine Street, Manchester, England, by Thomas Turner. Established in 1824, the school added the word Royal in 1836 and in 1872 it was taken over by Owens College, which later became a part of the University of Manchester.
Joseph Jordan, FRCS, was an English surgeon known primarily for his involvement in developing medical education outside its then traditional base of London. He established a medical school in Manchester and was an honorary surgeon of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, as well as a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
Frederic Carpenter Skey FRS was an English surgeon.
Robert Barnes was an English obstetric physician, known as a gynaecologist, teacher, author and medical politician.
Francis Cornelius Webb (1826–1873) was an English physician and medical writer.
The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare, was a British journal, devoted to the promotion of the theories and practices of mesmerism and phrenology, and the enterprise of "connecting and harmonizing practical science with little understood laws governing the mental structure of man". The name derived from the Greek word Zoe (ζωή) meaning "life". The Zoist was published quarterly, without a break, for fifteen years: from March 1843 until January 1856.
William Collins Engledue, MD, MRCS, MRCS, LSA (1835) was an English physician, surgeon, apothecary, mesmerist, phrenologist — and, in concert with John Elliotson, M.D., the co-editor of The Zoist.
Sir John Tomes was an English dental surgeon.
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