Thomas Turpin Crittenden

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Thomas Turpin Crittenden
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Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Born(1825-10-16)October 16, 1825
Huntsville, Alabama
DiedSeptember 5, 1905(1905-09-05) (aged 79)
East Gloucester, Massachusetts
Place of burial
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service1846–1847, 1861–1863
Rank Union Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brigadier General
Battles/wars American Civil War

Thomas Turpin Crittenden (October 16, 1825 – September 5, 1905) was a Union general in the American Civil War.

Union Army Land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

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Birth and early years

Crittenden was born in Huntsville, Alabama, but his family moved to Texas shortly thereafter. He was a nephew of Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, and a first cousin of Confederate general George B. Crittenden and Union general Thomas L. Crittenden. He grew up in Texas and attended Transylvania College at Lexington, Kentucky. He practiced law in Missouri until the outbreak of the Mexican–American War in 1846, when he enlisted in a Missouri volunteer regiment and was made a second lieutenant. The next year, he relocated to Madison, Indiana, where he resumed his legal career.

Huntsville, Alabama City in Alabama

Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County. The city extends west into neighboring Limestone County and south into Morgan County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 census. Huntsville is the third-largest city in Alabama and the largest city in the five-county Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area, which at the 2013 census estimate had a total population of 683,871. The Huntsville Metropolitan Area's population was 417,593 in 2010 to become the 2nd largest in Alabama. Huntsville metro's population reached 441,000 by 2014.

Alabama State of the United States of America

Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Civil War

Five days after the American Civil War began with the firing on Fort Sumter, Crittenden volunteered for the Union Army and was commissioned as captain of a company in the 6th Regiment Indiana Infantry (3 months). Little more than a week later, he became the regiment's colonel. Crittenden led his regiment into what is now West Virginia, taking part in several small battles. On August 2, 1861, the regiment was discharged, having only enlisted for 90 days. Crittenden reorganized his regiment for three years of service, and on September 20, 1861, he led his men into the officially neutral state of Kentucky. They spent the winter near Bowling Green, and marched to take part in the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, arriving in time for the second day. Later that month, in April 1862, Crittenden was commissioned a brigadier general.

Fort Sumter Fort in Charleston, South Carolina

Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War. It was one of a number of special forts planned after the War of 1812, combining high walls and heavy masonry, and classified as Third System, as a grade of structural integrity. Work started in 1829, but was incomplete by 1860, when South Carolina seceded from the Union.

In the United States uniformed services, captain is a commissioned-officer rank. In keeping with the traditions of the militaries of most nations, the rank varies between the services, being a senior rank in the naval services and a junior rank in the ground and air forces.

Colonel (United States) Military rank of the United States

In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. The pay grade for colonel is O-6.

On July 13, 1862, just weeks after taking charge of the Union garrison at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Crittenden and his entire command were captured by Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalrymen. Crittenden was exchanged in October 1862, but his career had been ruined. Early in 1863, he was given command of a brigade previously commanded by William E. Woodruff, but realized he was no longer viewed with confidence. He resigned from the army in May 1863 and saw no further military service.

Murfreesboro, Tennessee City in Tennessee, United States

Murfreesboro is a city in, and the county seat of, Rutherford County, Tennessee, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372. The city is the center of population of Tennessee, located 34 miles (55 km) southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee. It is Tennessee's fastest growing major city and one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is also home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014.

Nathan Bedford Forrest Confederate Army general

Nathan Bedford Forrest was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War.

William E. Woodruff (soldier) Union United States Army officer

William E. Woodruff was an American soldier who served as colonel of the 25th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War. Woodruff was given temporary brigade and division command in the Army of the Cumberland, but not promoted to brigadier general. He resigned in January 1863 out of frustration for his lack of advancement and was replaced by Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden.

After the war, Crittenden moved to Washington, D.C., where he practiced law, including before the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1885, he moved to distant San Diego, California, where he became a real estate developer. He died at the age of 79 while on a visit to East Gloucester, Massachusetts. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

San Diego City in California, United States

San Diego is a city in the U.S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles (190 km) south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico.

California State of the United States of America

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

See also

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