Thomas Twining (scholar)

Last updated

Thomas Twining (8 January 1735, Twickenham, London, England  6 August 1804, Colchester) was an English classical scholar and cleric.

Contents

Scholarship

The son of Daniel Twining, tea merchant of London, and Ann March, he was originally intended for a commercial life, but because of his distaste for it and his fondness for study, his father decided to send him to university. [1] He entered Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1755, and became a fellow in 1760. [2] He took orders and was married in 1764 to Elizabeth Smythies (1739–1796), daughter of Palmer Smythies, rector of St Michael's, Colchester, who had taught him at Colchester Free Grammar School. Twining spent the remainder of his life as incumbent of All Saints Church, Fordham, Essex, and in plurality as vicar of White Notley (from 1772) and rector of St Mary-at-the-Walls, Colchester (from 1788), where he lived from 1790 until his death on 6 August 1804. [3]

Twining's reputation as a classical scholar was established by his translation, with notes, of Aristotle's Poetics (1789) [4] . [5] His epitaph was composed by a lifelong friend and fellow scholar, Samuel Parr, [6] and another such friend, the musicologist Charles Burney, composed an obituary. [3]

Musicianship

Twining was an accomplished musician and assisted Charles Burney in writing his remarkable History of Music. [4] His calls on the Burney family in London in 1775 were vividly and affectionately described by Burney's daughter Fanny: "He is a man of learning, very fond of music, and a good performer both on the harpsichord and the violin. He commenced a correspondence with my father upon the publication of his German Tour, which they have kept up with great spirit ever since; for Mr. Twining, besides being deep in musical knowledge, is a man of great humour and drollery." [7]

Thomas's half-brother Richard Twining, a director of the East India Company and head of the tea company in The Strand, [8] was also intimate with the Burney family and one of seven Twinings, including Thomas, to subscribe to Fanny's novel Camilla in 1795. [9] Thomas later sent a double-folio sheet of corrections of punctuation and usage to Fanny Burney, which she incorporated into a second edition of the novel in 1802. As she put it, "I am proud that HE thinks the work worth flagellating." [10]

Papers

Selections from Thomas Twining's correspondence can be found in Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century (1882) [11] [12] and Selections from Papers of the Twining Family (1887) edited by his grand-nephew Richard Twining; see also Gentleman's Magazine, lxxiv. 490, and J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, vol. iii. (1908). [4]

Notes

  1. Twining, Stephen H. (1931). Two Hundred and Twenty-Five Years in the Stand, 1706-1931. R Twining & Company. p. 16.
  2. "Twining, Thomas (TWNN755T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  3. 1 2 Chahoud, 2004.
  4. 1 2 3 Chisholm 1911.
  5. The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney (Madame D'Arblay), vol. III, 1793–1797, ed. Joyce Hemlow with Patricia Boutilier and Althea Douglas (Oxford: OUP, 1973), p. 37 n.
  6. Field, William (1828). Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Opinions of the Rev. Samuel Parr, LL.D. H. Colburn. p.  110.
  7. The Early Diary of Frances Burney 1768–1778, ed. Annie Raine Ellis, vol. II (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1913), p. 6.
  8. Corley, T. A. B. "Twining, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27908.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. The Journals and Letters... pp. 147–8 and n.
  10. The Journals and Letters... p. 280.
  11. Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century: being Selections from the Correspondence of the Rev. Thomas Twining. John Murray. 1882.
  12. Robinson, Charles J. (10 March 1883). "Review of Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century: being Selections from the Correspondence of the Rev. Thomas Twining". The Academy. 23 (566): 163–164.

Related Research Articles

Frances Burney English diarist, novelist and playwright, 1752–1840

Frances Burney, also known as Fanny Burney and later Madame d'Arblay, was an English satirical novelist, diarist and playwright. In 1786–1790 she held the post as "Keeper of the Robes" to Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George III's queen. In 1793, aged 41, she married a French exile, General Alexandre d'Arblay. After a long writing career and wartime travels that stranded her in France for over a decade, she settled in Bath, England, where she died on 6 January 1840. The first of her four novels, Evelina (1778), had the best success and remains best regarded. Most of her plays were not performed in her lifetime. She wrote a memoir of her father (1832) and many letters and journals that have been gradually published since 1889.

Charles James Blomfield

Charles James Blomfield was a British divine and classicist, and a Church of England bishop for 32 years.

Charles Burney English music historian (1726–1814)

Charles Burney was an English music historian, composer and musician. He was the father of the writers Frances Burney and Sarah Burney, of the explorer James Burney, and of Charles Burney, a classicist and book donor to the British Museum.

Samuel Parr

Samuel Parr, was an English schoolmaster, writer, minister and Doctor of Law. He was known in his time for political writing, and (flatteringly) as "the Whig Johnson", though his reputation has lasted less well than Samuel Johnson's, and the resemblances were at a superficial level; Parr was no prose stylist, even if he was an influential literary figure. A prolific correspondent, he kept up with many of his pupils, and involved himself widely in intellectual and political life.

Charles Burney (schoolmaster) English scholar and schoolmaster 1757–1817

Charles Burney FRS, DD was an English classical scholar, schoolmaster, clergyman and chaplain to George III. He kept a school for boys in Hammersmith and later Greenwich.

James Harris (grammarian) English politician and grammarian, 1709–1780

James Harris, FRS was an English politician and grammarian. He was the author of Hermes, a philosophical inquiry concerning universal grammar (1751).

Jane Collier was an English novelist best known for her book An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting (1753). She also collaborated with Sarah Fielding on her only other surviving work The Cry (1754).

Charles Smythies

Charles Alan Smythies was a British colonial bishop in the 19th century.

Robert Potter was an English clergyman of the Church of England and a translator, poet, critic and pamphleteer. He established the convention of using blank verse for Greek hexameters and rhymed verse for choruses. His 1777 English version of the plays of Aeschylus was frequently reprinted and the only one available for the next 50 years.

Julia Charlotte Maitland, née Barrett, first married name Thomas, was an English writer and traveller, and the grandniece of the novelists Fanny Burney and Sarah Burney. She and her husband ran a boys' school in India, while strongly advocating a national system of education for the country.

William Seward (anecdotist)

William Seward was an English man of letters, known for his collections of anecdotes. he was closely acquainted in London with Samuel Johnson, the Thrales and the Burneys.

Richard Twining (tea merchant, born 1749)

Richard Twining (1749–1824) was an English merchant, a director of the East India Company, and the head of Twinings the tea merchants in the Strand, London.

George Owen Cambridge (1756–1841) was an English churchman, Archdeacon of Middlesex from 1808.

Plan of a Novel, according to Hints from Various Quarters is a short satirical work by Jane Austen, probably written in May 1816. It was published in complete form for the first time by R. W. Chapman in 1926, extracts having appeared in 1871. It has been said that "in the Plan and the correspondence from which it arose, we have the most important account of what Jane Austen understood to be her aims and capacities as a novelist".

John Tweddell

John Tweddell (1769–1799) was an English classical scholar and traveller.

William Hayward Roberts was an English born schoolmaster, poet and biblical critic, cleric and Provost of Eton College.

Thomas Wilson (schoolmaster)

Thomas Wilson (1747–1813) was an English cleric, known as master of Clitheroe grammar school.

The Essex Society for Archaeology and History is an organization that collects, studies and publishes information on the archaeology and history of the English county of Essex, including areas that since 1965 have belonged to the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest.

Samuel Berdmore (schoolmaster)

Samuel Berdmore D.D. (1739–1802) was an English cleric, schoolmaster, and author, master of Charterhouse School from 1769.

Marianne Francis (1790–1832) was an English evangelical, now known principally as a correspondent of Hester Piozzi and Sarah Wesley. She has been called an "evangelical bluestocking", and is recognised as a significant participant in debate about religious enthusiasm.

References