Thomas Twining (8 January 1735, Twickenham, London, England –6 August 1804, Colchester) was an English classical scholar and cleric.
The son of Daniel Twining, tea merchant of London, and Ann March, he was originally intended for a commercial life, but because of his distaste for it and his fondness for study, his father decided to send him to university.He entered Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1755, and became a fellow in 1760. He took orders and was married in 1764 to Elizabeth Smythies (1739–1796), daughter of Palmer Smythies, rector of St Michael's, Colchester, who had taught him at Colchester Free Grammar School. Twining spent the remainder of his life as incumbent of All Saints Church, Fordham, Essex, and in plurality as vicar of White Notley (from 1772) and rector of St Mary-at-the-Walls, Colchester (from 1788), where he lived from 1790 until his death on 6 August 1804.
Twining's reputation as a classical scholar was established by his translation, with notes, of Aristotle's Poetics (1789). His epitaph was composed by a lifelong friend and fellow scholar, Samuel Parr, and another such friend, the musicologist Charles Burney, composed an obituary.
Twining was an accomplished musician and assisted Charles Burney in writing his remarkable History of Music.His calls on the Burney family in London in 1775 were vividly and affectionately described by Burney's daughter Fanny: "He is a man of learning, very fond of music, and a good performer both on the harpsichord and the violin. He commenced a correspondence with my father upon the publication of his German Tour, which they have kept up with great spirit ever since; for Mr. Twining, besides being deep in musical knowledge, is a man of great humour and drollery."
Thomas's half-brother Richard Twining, a director of the East India Company and head of the tea company in The Strand,was also intimate with the Burney family and one of seven Twinings, including Thomas, to subscribe to Fanny's novel Camilla in 1795. Thomas later sent a double-folio sheet of corrections of punctuation and usage to Fanny Burney, which she incorporated into a second edition of the novel in 1802. As she put it, "I am proud that HE thinks the work worth flagellating."
Selections from Thomas Twining's correspondence can be found in Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth Century (1882)and Selections from Papers of the Twining Family (1887) edited by his grand-nephew Richard Twining; see also Gentleman's Magazine, lxxiv. 490, and J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, vol. iii. (1908).
Frances Burney, also known as Fanny Burney and later Madame d'Arblay, was an English satirical novelist, diarist and playwright. In 1786–1790 she held the post as "Keeper of the Robes" to Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, George III's queen. In 1793, aged 41, she married a French exile, General Alexandre d'Arblay. After a long writing career and wartime travels that stranded her in France for over a decade, she settled in Bath, England, where she died on 6 January 1840. The first of her four novels, Evelina (1778), was the most successful and remains her most highly regarded. Most of her plays were not performed in her lifetime. She wrote a memoir of her father (1832) and many letters and journals that have been gradually published since 1889.
Charles James Blomfield was a British divine and classicist, and a Church of England bishop for 32 years.
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Thomas Mozley, was an English clergyman and writer associated with the Oxford Movement.
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Charles Burney FRS was an English classical scholar, schoolmaster, clergyman and chaplain to George III. He kept a school for boys in Hammersmith and later Greenwich.
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George Owen Cambridge (1756–1841) was an English churchman, Archdeacon of Middlesex from 1808.
John Tweddell (1769–1799) was an English classical scholar and traveller.
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The Essex Society for Archaeology and History is an organization that collects, studies and publishes information on the archaeology and history of the English county of Essex, including areas that since 1965 have belonged to the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest.
Samuel Berdmore D.D. (1739–1802) was an English cleric, schoolmaster, and author, master of Charterhouse School from 1769.
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Thomas Keate (1745–1821) was an English surgeon. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1794.