|Born||22 October 1859|
|Died||24 June 1926|
|Years of service||1877 - 1921|
|Awards|| Service Medal |
Order of the Dannebrog
Thomas Vilhelm Garde (22 October 1859 – 24 June 1926) was a Danish naval officer, distinguished for his explorations in Greenland.
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island.
Garde became a sub-lieutenant of the Danish Navy in 1880, rising to the rank of First lieutenant in 1881, captain in 1898, Commander in 1908 and Rear Admiral in 1918. He retired from active service in 1921.
Sub-lieutenant is a junior military officer rank.
Lieutenant is a commissioned officer rank in many nations' navies. It is typically the most senior of junior officer ranks. The rank's insignia usually consists of two medium gold braid stripes and often the uppermost stripe features an executive curl.
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel.
Garde was junior leader of the Umiak Expedition of 1883-85 led by Gustav Holm. They thoroughly explored the coast of southeast Greenland, by journeys from Cape Farewell using umiak boats. Garde explored Lindenow Fjord (62° 15' N), where have been found the Scandinavian ruins on the east coast. Wintering at Nanortalik, he discovered between there and Cape Farewell 200 live glaciers, of which 70 had a sea face more than a mile (1.61 km) wide. During his surveys of the Julianahaab district, southwest of Greenland, in 1893, he made a long journey over the Greenland ice cap, which proved to be of unsuspected height. In his trip of 13 days he traveled 180 miles (290 km) across the ice and reached an elevation of more than 8000 feet (2438 m). He was awarded the Roquette medal by the Société de Géographie of Paris.
Gustav Frederik Holm was a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer, born at Copenhagen.
Cape Farewell is a headland on the southern shore of Egger Island, Nunap Isua Archipelago, Greenland. As the southernmost point of the country, it is one of the important landmarks of Greenland.
The umiak, umialak, umiaq, umiac, oomiac, oomiak, ongiuk, or anyak is a type of open skin boat used by both Yupik and Inuit, and was originally found in all coastal areas from Siberia to Greenland. First arising in Thule times, it has traditionally been used in summer to move people and possessions to seasonal hunting grounds and for hunting whales and walrus. Although the umiak was usually propelled by oars (women) or paddles (men), sails—sometimes made from seal intestines—were also used, and in the 20th century, outboard motors. Because the umiak has no keel, the sails cannot be used for tacking.
In 1897, he led the Russian icebreaker Nadeshny from Copenhagen to Vladivostok.He became a commander in the Royal Danish navy, chief of staff, from 1908 to 1911 Assistant to the Minister of the Navy and in 1918 Rear Admiral. Garde's narratives of his explorations appeared in Meddelelser om Grønland, ix, xvi (50 volumes, Copenhagen, 1876–1912). His observations formed the foundation for the first complete description of West Greenland waterways, including information about wind and ice.
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is the largest metropolitan area in Europe proper and one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218. It forms the core of the wider urban area of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.
Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2017 was 606,589, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres (320 mi) away, whilst Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres (482 mi) east across the Sea of Japan.
The Garde Nunataks (Garde Nunatakker) in Greenland were named after him by the 1909–12 Alabama Expedition.
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Baron Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and Arctic explorer. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists.
Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen was a Danish author, ethnologist, and explorer, from Ringkøbing. He was most notably an explorer of Greenland. With Count Harald Moltke and Knud Rasmussen he formed the Danish Literary Expedition (1902–04) to West Greenland, and in the early stages (1902) discovered near Evighedsfjord two ice-free mountain ranges. Later the party proceeded to Cape York and for 10 months lived native fashion with the Eskimo. The return journey of the expedition to Upernavik across the ice of Melville Bay was the first sledge crossing on record.
Carl Emil Hansen Ostenfeld was a Danish systematic botanist. He graduated from the University of Copenhagen under professor Eugenius Warming. He was a keeper at the Botanical Museum 1900-1918, when he became professor of botany at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. In 1923, by the early retirement of Raunkiær's, Ostenfeld became professor of botany at the University of Copenhagen and director of the Copenhagen Botanical Garden, both positions held until his death in 1931. He was a member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters and served on the board of directors of the Carlsberg Foundation.
Ove Vilhelm Paulsen was a Danish botanist. He studied at the University of Copenhagen under professor Eugen Warming. He was a keeper at the Botanical Museum of the University of Copenhagen from 1905 to 1920, when he became professor of botany at the Pharmaceutical College in Copenhagen, a position he held until 1947. He studied the flora of Denmark, plankton of the North Atlantic and the flora of Central Asia. He went on expeditions to Northern Persia and Pamir as early as 1898-1899. During his travels through Pamir, he was accompanied by the Danish explorer Ole Olufsen. Ove Paulsen visited North America with the second International Phytogeographic Excursion and subsequently described the biome zonation from east to west in a paper.
Herman Theodor "Theo" Holm was a Danish-American systematic botanist, agriculturalist and plant pathologist. His works dealt principally with plants from the Arctic and from the Rocky Mountains, mainly taxonomy and morphology. He published over 150 papers reflecting his research which included his series Studies on the Cyperaceae and Medicinal Plants of North America.
Morten Pedersen Porsild was a Danish botanist who lived and worked most of his adult life in Greenland. He participated in expeditions to Greenland in 1898 and 1902, together with the physiologist August Krogh. In 1906, he founded the Arctic Station in Qeqertarsuaq, West Greenland, since 1956 part of the University of Copenhagen. He got support from famous polar researchers like Knud Rasmussen, Mylius-Erichsen and Fridtjof Nansen. A private person donated the building and running cost were put directly on the Danish state budget. Morten Porsild managed the station for forty years. In 1946, he returned to Copenhagen, and was succeeded as station head by Paul Gelting. He was the father of Alf Erling Porsild, Robert Thorbjørn Porsild, Asta Irmelin "Tulle" Egede and Ove Sten Porsild.
Jens Laurentius Moestue Vahl was a Danish botanist and pharmacist. He was son of the Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist Martin Vahl. Jens Vahl graduated as a pharmacist in 1819 and then started studying botany and chemistry.
Dr. Erik Holtved was a Danish artist, archaeologist, linguist, and ethnologist. He was the first university-trained ethnologist to study the Inughuit, the northernmost Greenlandic Inuit.
Wilhelm August Graah (1793–1863) was a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer. Graah had mapped areas of West Greenland when he, in 1828–30, was sent on an expedition to the uninhabited eastern coast with the purpose to search for the lost Eastern Norse Settlement. The expedition set out from Copenhagen in the brig Hvalfisken, but - once arrived in Greenland - used umiaks able to navigate in the shallow waters between the coast and the sea ice. The expedition reached Dannebrog Island, but returned under great suffering and without having reached the inhabited areas in Tasiilaq. Two naturalists participated - the geologist Christian Pingel and the botanist Jens Vahl. Graah published an account of the exploration.
Jens Arnold Diderich Jensen was a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer.
Carl Hartvig Ryder was a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer.
Paul Emil Elliot Gelting was a Danish ecologist, botanist and lichenologist. He was associate professor at the University of Copenhagen and particularly active in Greenland.
Ammassalik wooden maps are carved, tactile maps of the Greenlandic coastlines. In the 1880s, Gustav Holm led an expedition to the Ammassalik coast of eastern Greenland, where he met several Tunumiit, or Eastern Greenland Inuit communities, who had had no prior direct contact with Europeans. He returned to Denmark with a set of three-dimensional wooden maps of the coast around, carved by a native of Umivik named Kunit.
Vice Admiral Sir Georg Carl Amdrup, RN was a Danish naval officer, Vice Admiral and Greenland researcher.
Hovgaard Island is a large uninhabited island of the Greenland Sea, Greenland. The island was named after Andreas Hovgaard, a Polar explorer and officer of the Danish Navy who led an expedition to the Kara Sea on steamship Dijmphna in 1882-83.
Bernstorff Fjord is a fjord in King Frederick VI Coast, eastern Greenland.
Kangerlussuaq Fjord is a fjord in eastern Greenland. It is part of the Sermersooq municipality.
J. A. D. Jensen Nunataks are a nunatak group in Greenland. Administratively it falls under the Sermersooq Municipality.
The Denmark expedition, also known as Denmark Expedition to Greenland's Northeast Coast and as the Danmark Expedition, was an expedition to the northeast of Greenland in 1906–1908.