Thomas W. Hardwick

Last updated
Thomas W. Hardwick
Senator Thomas Hardwick.jpg
63rd Governor of Georgia
In office
June 25, 1921 June 30, 1923
Preceded by Hugh M. Dorsey
Succeeded by Clifford Walker
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
November 4, 1914 March 3, 1919
Preceded by William S. West
Succeeded by William J. Harris
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Georgia's 10th district
In office
March 4, 1903 November 2, 1914
Preceded by Emory Speer
Succeeded by Thomas E. Winn
Member of the Georgia House of Representatives
In office
Personal details
Thomas William Hardwick

(1872-12-09)December 9, 1872
Thomasville, Georgia
DiedJanuary 31, 1944(1944-01-31) (aged 71)
Sandersville, Georgia
Resting placeOld City Cemetery
Political party Democratic
Other political
Spouse(s)Maude Elizabeth Perkins
Alma mater Mercer University (B.A.)
University of Georgia (J.D.)

Thomas William Hardwick (December 9, 1872 January 31, 1944) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Georgia (U.S. state) U.S. state in the United States

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. The state's nicknames include the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.



Hardwick was born in Thomasville, Georgia. He graduated from Mercer University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1892 and received a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Georgia in 1893. He was an active member of Phi Delta Theta at Mercer, and while at UGA, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society.

Thomasville, Georgia City in Georgia, United States

Thomasville is the county seat of Thomas County, Georgia, United States. The population was 19,340 at the 2013 United States Census, making it the second largest city in southwest Georgia after Albany.

Mercer University Private university in Macon, Georgia

Mercer University is a private university with its main campus in Macon, Georgia. Founded in 1833 as Mercer Institute and gaining university status in 1837, it is the oldest private university in Georgia and enrolls more than 8,600 students in 12 colleges and schools: liberal arts, business, engineering, education, music, continuing and professional studies, law, theology, medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and health professions. Mercer is a member of the Georgia Research Alliance and has a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's oldest collegiate honors society.

A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.

Hardwick practiced law and then entered politics with the support of Thomas E. Watson. [1] Hardwick was the prosecutor of Washington County, Georgia from 1895 to 1897; a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1898 to 1902; and a member of the United States House of Representatives representing Georgia's 10th district from 1903 to 1914. In 1914 he ran for a seat in the United States Senate in a special election for the unexpired term of Augustus O. Bacon who had died in office. Hardwick won, and served in the Senate from 1915 to 1919.

Thomas E. Watson American politician, attorney, newspaper editor and writer

Thomas Edward "Tom" Watson was an American politician, attorney, newspaper editor and writer from Georgia. In the 1890s Watson championed poor farmers as a leader of the Populist Party, articulating an agrarian political viewpoint while attacking business, bankers, railroads, Democratic President Grover Cleveland, and the Democratic Party. He was the nominee for vice president with Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896 on the Populist ticket.

Washington County, Georgia U.S. county in Georgia

Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,187. The county seat is Sandersville. The county was established on February 25, 1784. It was named for Revolutionary War general George Washington.

Georgia House of Representatives

The Georgia House of Representatives is the lower house of the Georgia General Assembly of the U.S. state of Georgia. There are currently 180 elected members.

As a senator, Harwick co-sponsored the Immigration Act of 1918, which was enacted in October of that year. Aimed at radical anarchists who had immigrated to the U.S., the new law enabled deportation of any non-citizen who belonged to an anarchist organization or who was found in possession of anarchist literature for the purpose of propaganda.

Immigration Act of 1918

The United States Immigration Act of 1918 was enacted on October 16, 1918. It is also known as the Dillingham-Hardwick Act. It was intended to correct what President Woodrow Wilson's administration considered to be deficiencies in previous laws, in order to enable the government to deport undesirable aliens, specifically anarchists, communists, labor organizers, and similar activists.

On April 29, 1919, as a direct result of his sponsorship of the Immigration Act, Senator Hardwick was targeted for assassination by adherents of the radical anarchist Luigi Galleani, who mailed a booby trap bomb to his residence in Georgia. The bomb exploded when a house servant attempted to open the package, blowing off her hands, and severely injuring Senator Hardwick's wife. [2]

1919 United States anarchist bombings Series of bombings in the US in 1919

The 1919 United States anarchist bombings were a series of bombings and attempted bombings carried out by the Italian anarchist followers of Luigi Galleani from April through June 1919.

Luigi Galleani Italian insurrectionary anarchist (1862–1931)

Luigi Galleani was an Italian anarchist active in the United States from 1901 to 1919. He is best known for his enthusiastic advocacy of "propaganda of the deed", i.e. the use of violence to eliminate those he viewed as tyrants and oppressors and to act as a catalyst to the overthrow of existing government institutions. From 1914 to 1932, Galleani's followers in the United States, carried out a series of bombings and assassination attempts against institutions and persons they viewed as class enemies. After Galleani was deported from the United States to Italy in June 1919, his colleagues are alleged to have carried out the Wall Street bombing of 1920, which resulted in the deaths of 38 people.

Senator Hardwick was defeated in the Democratic primary for reelection in 1918 by William J. Harris. Hardwick then served as Governor of Georgia from 1921 to 1923, and due to his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, lost to Clifford Walker in the subsequent election. [3] [4] He ran unsuccessfully for election to the Senate in 1922 and 1924, and then retired from politics. He spent the rest of his life practicing law, with offices in Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Georgia and Sandersville, Georgia. He died in Sandersville.

William J. Harris American politician

William Julius Harris was a United States Senator from the state of Georgia. He was a great-grandson of Charles Hooks, who had been a Representative from North Carolina, and son-in-law of Joseph Wheeler, Confederate General and Representative from Alabama.

A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government.

Ku Klux Klan American white supremacy group

The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group, whose primary target is African Americans. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States. Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. Historically, the First Klan used terrorism – both physical assault and murder – against politically active blacks and their allies in the South in the late 1860s, until it was suppressed around 1872. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were highly exaggerated by both friends and enemies.

One of Hardwick's most notable actions as governor of Georgia was his appointment of Rebecca Latimer Felton to the United States Senate as a temporary replacement for Tom Watson, who had died. Though Felton only served for one day, she was the first woman to serve in the Senate.

See also


  1. Smith, Zachary (2012). "Tom Watson and Resistance to Federal War Policies in Georgia during World War I". Journal of Southern History. 78 (2): 293–326. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  2. Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton University Press (1991), ISBN   0-691-02604-1, ISBN   978-0-691-02604-6, p. 141
  3. Abad, Jay-Raymond N., "The Evolution of a Society and Fraternity: The Response of Phis regarding Equality"
  4. Lucket, Robert E. "Thomas Hardwick (1872–1944)"

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U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
William H. Fleming
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 10th congressional district

March 4, 1903 – November 2, 1914
Succeeded by
Carl Vinson
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
William S. West
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
November 4, 1914 March 3, 1919
Succeeded by
William J. Harris
Political offices
Preceded by
Hugh M. Dorsey
Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Clifford Walker